From there, he struck into the heart of Provence, ending with the capture of , despite strong resistance. In 732, Umayyad forces led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, advanced in force into Aquitaine. The Muslims were greater in numbers and comprised mainly armed cavalry wearing armour and so should have had the advantage but, given that he had chosen the location, Charles Martel was able to fight a brilliant defensive battle. At Bordeaux, they did, and resulted in absolute devastation of Eudes army, almost all of whom were killed, with minimal losses to the Muslims. By the grace of Our Lord, he wrought a great slaughter upon the enemies of Christian faith, so that---as history bears witness---he slew in that battle 300,000 men, likewise their king by name Abderrahman.
Abd er Rahman quickly crushed the revolt, and next directed his attention against the traitor's former ally, Eudes. Abderrahman and other prudent soldiers saw the disorder of the Muslim troops, who were loaded with spoil riches from conquest ; but they did not venture to displease the soldiers by ordering them to abandon everything except their arms and war-horses. Charles, the conflict with Hunold put aside, descended on the Provençal strongholds of the Muslims. He acknowledged Charles as his overlord, albeit not for long, and Charles confirmed his Duchy. By this time the sun is beginning to set, and Charles decides to wait until the next day to resume combat, not wanting to risk losing any more troops at night. Though he won the battle of Narbonne when the army there came out to meet him, Charles failed in his attempt to take Narbonne by siege in 737, when the city was jointly defended by its Muslim Arab and Christian Visigoth citizens. Opposing them was the Merovingian Frankish kingdom, perhaps the foremost power in western Europe.
No such later attempts however were made as conflict between the Umayyad Emirate of Iberia and the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad prevented a unified assault on Europe. The Franks with misgivings lowered their blades, and beholding the numberless tents of the Arabs, prepared themselves for another battle the next day. They had become overextended and would eventually be forced to withdraw back into Spain. The Franks, on the other hand, stood in highly organised formations and withstood one cavalry charge after another from the Muslims. During the battle, the Franks defeated the Islamic army and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed.
He crushed the Muslim army, though outnumbered, but failed to take the city. Combatants Franks, led by Charles Martel. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. Their tireless hands drove their swords down to the breasts of the foe. It was fought in an area between the cities of and , in the of west-central France, near the village of , about 20 kilometres 12 mi northeast of Poitiers.
In this moment of confusion the Franks advance. A number of historians agree that the Battle was of macrohistorical importance but take a more moderate and nuanced view of its significance, in contrast to the more dramatic and rhetorical approach of Gibbon. For seven days, the two armies engaged in minor skirmishes. Charles begins to march an army towards the Saracen invaders to confront them on his own terms. In the East, Arab histories followed a similar path. After each side had tormented the other with raids for almost seven days, they finally prepared their battle lines and fought fiercely.
In 732, the Arab advance force was proceeding north toward the River Loire having already outpaced their supply train and a large part of their army. Charles' remains were interred at the Basilica of St. . Essentially, having easily destroyed all resistance in that part of Gaul, the invading army had split off into several raiding parties, simply looting and destroying, while the main body advanced more slowly. As a result of the battle Charles earned the name Martel or Hammer and he would continue to push the Muslims out of Aquitania and Septimania over the coming years, achieving important victories at the Battle of the River Berre and the Siege of Narbonne both in 737. Forming a large square, his men surprised Abdul Rahman, who did not expect to encounter a large enemy army and forced the Umayyad emir to pause for a week to consider his options. The victory led to the creation of a buffer zone between the Frankish Kingdom and the Muslim , known as the Marca Hispanica or Spanish March, which would ultimately develop into Catalonia.
Martel, on the other hand, had thousands of veteran troops. These campaigns marked the first time he integrated heavy cavalry with stirrups into his formations. Through him, the Franks had been given an incredible and powerful cavalry, was so successful in their war contracts that earned the name of Charles the Hammer. Any gap in the line could be plugged with soldiers from one of the other sides. Seizing church lands to fund his endeavors, Charles Martel hired soldiers and trained this standing army into a formidable professional fighting force.
Duke Odo of Aquitaine, also known as Eudes the Great, had decisively defeated a major invasion force in 721 at the Battle of Toulouse, but Arab raids continued, in 725 reaching as far as the city of Autun in Burgundy. Over the next three years, Charles conducted a civil war against King Chilperic and the Mayor of the Palace of Neustria, Ragenfrid, that saw him suffer a setback at Cologne 716 before winning key victories at Ambleve 716 and Vincy 717. Defeating the Visigothic kingdom of Spain was a prelude to increasing raids into Gaul, or modern France, and in 725 Islamic armies reached as far north as the Vosgues mountains near the modern border with Germany. In the east of the peninsula the Frankish emperors established the Marca Hispanica across the Pyrenees in part of what today is Catalonia, reconquering Girona in 785 and Barcelona in 801. No permission is granted for commercial use.
After Eudes died, who had been forced to acknowledge, albeit reservedly, the suzerainty of Charles in 719, his son wished independence. Neither of them wanted to attack. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi was killed, and Charles subsequently extended his authority in the south. Abd-al-Raḥmân felt he had to sack Tours, which meant he had to go through the Frankish army on the hill in front of him. You can wrap a word in square brackets to make it appear bold. He was promptly surrounded by his personal guard who repulsed the attack.