The nature of problems which are faced by the leader and his group, and the extent of pressures under which they work are also important forces. Management: A Global Perspective, Tenth Edition, Mc-Graw Hill series in management. He is known for his work onSituational leadership theory with KennethBlanchard. Relationships, power and task structure are the three key factors that drive effective styles. Contingency theory states that these actions are dependant contingent to the internal and external factors. Instead, a leader's effectiveness is based on the situation. Therefore, in organisational context, power relationship between the agent and the target based on their characteristics is modified, to a great extent, by the organisational characteristics.
In essence, the success of leaders is contingent on their roles. The positional power can be weak if the subordinates do not directly report to the leader, a matrix organization or task that is sub-contracted to an external organization. Beginning in 1954, Fiedler began studying leadership inhigh school basketball teams. Vrooms primary researchwas on the expectancy theory of motivation, whichattempts to explain why individuals choose to followcertain courses of action in organizations, particularlyin decision-making and leadership. A classic scenario is depicted in William Golding's Lord of the Flies, where kids are stranded on a deserted tropical island and ultimately fall into fighting with each other.
The major organisational factors that affect power relationship are: 1. Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. For example, marketing function in a business organisation has high visibility and, therefore, more power; human resource function has low visibility and less power. His theory states that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extreme situations, such as those found in mergers and acquisitions work and manufacturing, while human-relations oriented leaders are more effective in middle-ground situations such as banking and retail. Conversely if the task is vague and unstructured and responsibilities are not assigned, it will be difficult to easily control and manage the performance of group members. How does the leader's style fit the context of the situation? A major question would be how one can apply the theory to resolve a problem.
Tall or flat organizational structures? A manager in an organization with a contingency approach may feel pressured to perform because he is responsible for assigning employees different roles within each project. Since these positions are held by individuals, organisation structure prescribes relationship among different individuals. This leader will allow his or her followers to help figure out how to solve a problem. During that time he had team members graduate and new members start on the team. A system can be biolog … ical,physical or social Answer.
This is because your people are able and willing to work with as little supervision and intervention as possible. As with anything, you have to learn to go with the flow. Modern information technology both permits and requires changes in communication and interaction patterns within and between organizations. Other factors related to the work environment, company culture and employees impact a manager's success in leading and motivating. It is relevant to note here that similar ideas were expressed three decades earlier. They have more skills than the M2 group, but theyre still not confident in their abilities. The leader thus needs to sell another way of working, explaining and clarifying decisions.
Yet the granularity of specification may not be sufficient. You decide to use the contingency management approach to assess and advise the company. For a subordinate who is on time regularly, the rating would be in the middle, around a four or five. Behavioural … is based on the behaviour of the employee, activities that behaviour management do is , involving other co-workers in discussion and asking their option, letting an employee go early because of his pregnant wife, et. This style works best with people who know their limitations and are open to change. Organizations tend to position their quality professionals in unenviable positions.
When used in optimal conditions, it can build flexibility and responsibility within the group. Anyway, I shall bookmark your site for my tutorial students. On the other hand although the theory has been effectively tested still there are enormous concerns regarding the validity of the theory. Small organizations can behave informally while larger organizations tend to become more formalized. Large organizations can have more specialized staff, units, and jobs. Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch suggest that organizations have developed separate departments to confront differing environmental segments.
The Contingency theory provide the suggestions that the most effective and higher productive result of tasks can only be achieved by changing the situation to fit the leader. People who are very task oriented will do well when conditions are either very favorable or very unfavorable. In other situations, other rules are activated. Reasons for this include an increase in stress, the leader reverting to less mature behavior, and this leads to poor results. External contingencies are: economic, technological, legal, sociopoliticocultural and environmental contingencies. In his first eight years, he won three Pacific Coast championships.