Due partially to these new trade networks, her reign was marked by wealth, prosperity, and peace. During this period, religious and other traditions slowly declined. For example, in the mythology that developed around unification, Narmer was portrayed as Horus, a god of Lower Egypt, where Narmer originally ruled. She even wore a fake beard and a short kilt like the men wore. She grew up in the great royal courts of Egypt with her sister and two brothers.
There is a theory that she contracted bone cancer through her usage of a lotion that contained a carcinogen. Hatshepsut claimed, falsely, to have restored the damage wrought by the Asian kings during their rule in Egypt. The Hatshepsut needle, a granite obelisk, is considered another great accomplishment. Eventually, the Egyptians and Hittites signed a lasting peace treaty. She was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, in the hills behind Deir el-Bahri.
Hatshepsut sent five massive ships to open trade with Punt; they returned filled with 30 live myrrh trees and other gifts, including frankincense. First occupied by the Assyrians, then the Persians, and later the Macedonians and Romans, Egyptians would never again reach the glorious heights of self-rule they achieved during previous periods. When the priests resisted, he removed them from their positions and took their lands and closed temples. Hatshepsut's temple not only aligned to the winter solstice to allow light to illuminate statues of the gods, but also featured brand new architectural innovations that allowed it to achieve pure visual harmony. Josephus referred to the Queen of Sbeba as queen of Egypt and Ethiopia, so some have also argued that Sheba and Hatsheput were the same person. She wore a fake beard. The builders of the pyramids were not enslaved people but peasants, working on the pyramids during the farming off-season.
The two large obelisks at Karnak were constructed during her reign. The Road to Punt The female pharaoh ordered a few ships to be built in the shipyard near the Nile and transported by land to the harbor on the Red Sea. Female Rule Hatshepsut was not the first female ruler of Egypt. Some scientists think this expansion was caused by a slight shift in the tilt of the Earth. This was possibly a result of the foreign rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period The Eighteenth Dynasty c.
The Egyptian army of the time was the largest in the world. Considered to be the peak of Egyptian power. The priesthood becomes hereditary and begins to assumesecular power. Due to lacking military power, however, the Egyptians were conquered by the Assyrians toward the end of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. Egypt was joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, also called the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. In terms of trade, Hatshepsut wasnot blind to the need of bolstering Egypt's economy' and indeed,the Punt expedition is but the climax of her consistent tradingenterprises with Lebanon, Crete, Syria, West Africa, South Africa,Aswan and the reopening of mines in Mt.
Building Projects Hatshepsut was a prolific builder, commissioning hundreds of construction projects and statuary. This demonstrates both the power of the state to force people to provide labor and also the advantages enjoyed by elites, who could buy their way out of providing labor. She was first the regent for her son during the eighteenth dynasty and later declared herself the ruler or pharaoh of Egypt. His sister the Divine Consort, Hatshepsut settled the affairs of the Two Lands by reason of her plans. He arranged for her image as pharaoh to be removed from temples and monuments. The pharaoh says: ''I have given you Punt in its entirety including the lands of the gods the God's Land that has not been entered, and the Myrrh-terraces unknown to Egyptians. These tombs represented a growing divide between the elite and common people in Egyptian society.
It was he who inaugurated the New Kingdom and the eighteenth dynasty, giving rise to some of the most extraordinary characters in ancient Egyptian history. She was also proficient at self-promotion, which was enabled by her wealth. In the middle terrace she constructed chapels for the gods Hathor and Anubis. Her supreme achievement was her Dayr al-Baḥrī temple; designed as a funerary monument for Hatshepsut, it was dedicated to Amon-Re and included a series of chapels dedicated to , , , , and the royal ancestors. She was mummified as a pharaoh, but her mummy may have been moved and archaeologists still debate if they have identified her remains.
This is where things get weird. Top image: A stone statue of Hatshepsut and Egyptian soldiers from Hatshepsut's expedition to the Land of Punt as depicted from her temple at Deir el-Bahri. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name. Papyrus is very fragile, but due to the hot and dry climate of Egypt, a few papyrus documents have survived. Sadly it showed that the Queen suffered from artheritis, diabetes, but dies from bone cancer which had spread throughout her body. Extreme prosperity and renaissancein art and building projects mark the beginning of this period. It's also aligned with winter solstice so that sunlight enters the chapel and illuminates statues of Osiris and Amen-Ra very Indiana Jones-esque, if you think about it.
It is unknown when Hatshepsut started her preparations for the journey to Punt, but it believed to have been a very expensive trip. Statue of Hatshepsut: This statue of Hatshepsut is housed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. © Aleksey Gureev - Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir-el-Bahri In stark contrast to the pyramids, Hatshepsut's mortuary temple complex was built in a more secure area, to deter potential tomb raiders. This meant that he married his half sister, Hatshepsut, and they had a female child called Neferure. Rather than go to war, she established trade relationships with many foreign countries. Yet, she was also depicted in feminine clothing and continued to refer to herself as a woman. Although construction of the shrine began during the reign of her father, it was the female pharaoh who actually finished it.
In Thebes this focused on the temples of her divine father, the national god Amon-Re see. She had the support of the priest and used a made up story that her mother was visited by Amon-Ra when she was pregnant, thus making Hatsheput holy or sacred or divine. Menes eventually founded the Twenty-first Dynasty at Tanis. She became the first great woman in recorded history, the forerunner of such figures as Cleopatra, Elizabeth I, and Catherine the Great. She also sent raiding expeditions to Byblos and Sinai, and may have led military campaigns against Nubia and Canaan. The Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri.