The first requirement is the perspective, or a mental view, of facts or ideas and their interrelationships pertinent of the professions' practice. It focuses on the nursing care of the hospitalized and ill stricken patient and does not address health promotion, primary prevention, or disease prevention. Any imbalance in each system results in disequilibrium. Clinical Setting - used in inpatient , outpatient and community settings. Seven Subsystems Johnson, 1980 1. To be stimulated to enhance growth and prevent stagnation Assumptions on Behavioral Systems Johnson cites Chin 1961 as the source for her first assumption. It can be an asset, and it can work, that has been proven by Johnson and some of her followers.
Drive or Goal — the motivation for behavior 2. Its consequences are social inclusion, intimacy, and formation and maintenance of a strong social bond. The behavior is the actual manifestation of their path to reach their goal. But do we need to separate the behavioral from the biological. Conceptual basis Conceptual basis: 1 Attachment or affilliative subsystem based on citation from the work of Ainsworth and Robson 2 Dependency subsystem Was based on the work of Heathers, Gerwitz, Rosenthal 3 Ingestive subsystem and Eliminative subsystem Supported by the work of Walile, Mead, and sears 4 Sexual subsystem Based on the work of Kagan, and resnik 5 Achievement subsystem Atkinson, Feather, Crandell in which they explained that physcial, creative, mechanical, and social skills are manifested by achievement behavior. The Dependency subsystem promotes helping behavior that calls for a nurturing response.
The behavioral model underscores the importance of the nursing process. If the baseline data are available for an individual, the nurse may have goal for the individual to return to the baseline behavior. From the beginning, Johnson 1959 proposed that the knowledge of the science of nursing necessary for effective nursing care included a synthesis of key concepts drawn from basic and applied sciences. Nursing theories are used to describe, develop, disseminate, and use present knowledge in nursing. The ultimate goal for each subsystem is expected to be the same for all individuals. If the alterations in the behavior that are planned do occur, the nurse should be able to observe the return to the previous behavior patterns. Stressor A stimulus from the internal or external world that results in stress or instability.
Informatics : Use information and technology to communicate, manage knowledge, mitigate error, and support decision making. She also believed nursing had a body of knowledge reflecting both the science and the art. Person is a system of interdependent parts that requires some regularity and adjustment to maintain a balance Johnson, 1980. Scope: Johnson does not define the expected outcomes when one of the system is affected by the nursing implementation an implicit expectation is made that all human in all cultures will attain same outcome- homeostasis. There is organization, interaction, interdependency and integration of the parts and elements of behaviors that go to make up the subsystem.
These responses are developed through experience and learning and are determined by numerous physical, biological, psychological, and social factors. Eliminative subsystem — functions to excrete wastes 5. Johnson was born on August 21, 1919 in Savannah, Georgia. Acceptance by the Nursing Community Theory application: 72 year old male , widower who recently move into a residential facility after he was discharged from an acute hospital due to fall injury. In reality, the nurse's role is more comprehensive than the behavioral model encompasses Meleis, 1995. Dependency subsystem — behaviors designed to get attention, recognition, and physical assistance 3.
The set will likely influence how they behave in order to become healthy. Systems balance reflects adjustments and adaptations that are successful. The behavioral system of the human body and mind has seven subsystems in Johnson's approach. As a result he was out of work and spend plenty of time with his friends and seemed depressed. Specificity or Generality : the model is very individual oriented so the nurses working with the group have difficulty in its implementation. If the baseline data are available for an individual, the nurse may have goal for the individual to return to the baseline behavior. It provides survival and security.
To assist the patient who is able to modify his behavior in ways that it supports biological imperatives. After more than 15 years, she began to think of man and the behavioral systems model and how it best supported nursing practice. Attachment or affiliative subsystem — serves the need for security through social inclusion or intimacy 2. Each individual person has a predisposition to act with reference to the goal, in certain ways rather than the other. She did this to prevent the care of patients from overriding the education portion of nursing because she felt that education was the priority for nurses. Health - It is reflected by the organization, interaction, interdependence ,and integration of the subsystems of the behavioral system.
The second requirement of professional practice is a structure for practice to organize and standardize practice and, thus, render practice habitual and customary. This is when she began to realized her love for children, nursing and education. If the alterations in the behavior that are planned do occur, the nurse should be able to observe the return to the previous behavior patterns. This theory is a highly abstract concept. She began to use different ways to build and present knowledge and began to change her practice based on the outcomes.
Each system has to be nurtured through the input of appropriate supplies from the environment. In 1961, Johnson proposed that nursing care facilitated the client's maintenance of a state of equilibrium. Ideas from her theory have been incorporated in the nursing education programs at the University of Colorado, University of Honolulu, and Vanderbilt University. However, society has placed limits when dealing with self-protection and that people and their property be respected and protected. The behavioral model has also been used by Herbert 1989 to guide the care of a stroke patient suffering from hemiplegia Fawcett, 1984.
It still leaves a gap in where to actually look for the problems that exist. It begins with the development of gender role identity and includes the broad range of sex role behaviors Johnson, 1980. From 1949 until her retirement in 1978 and subsequent move to Key Largo, Florida, she was an assistant professor of pediatric nursing, an associate professor of nursing, and a professor of nursing at the University of California in Los Angeles Conner et. Person is viewed as a behavioral system with patterned, repetitive, and purposeful ways of behaving that link him to the environment Johnson, 1980. The nurse can then evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of these behaviors in assisting the individual in reaching one of these goals.