In one interpretation, the figure represents Apollo, the personification of victory; however, a specific, although unknown, human victor seems more likely. A Herakles and a Hermes are attributed by Cicero Deoratore and Pliny Natural History to Polykleitos. It is likely that the original statue suffered this fate. This book is a must for all interested in classical art. The sculpture may have been smaller than the gold-and-ivory statues of Athena Parthenos at Athens and Zeus at Olympia by Phidias.
The face still preserves traces of early classical severity. At one time, this athlete was holding a spear in his left hand. Richter, The Sculpture and Sculptors of the Greeks 4th ed. Another of his works praised by ancient writers was a gold and ivory Hera for a temple at Argos; now known only from Pausanias' description and from representations on Roman coins. No recognized originals by Polykleitos exist today. The term is derived from the Greek letter chi which is formed by two lines crossing obliquely, but the stroke descending right to left is straight while the other is, like a reversed S, curved at both ends.
The Doryphoros of Polykleitos at the Archaeological Museum of Naples. Hirmer Fotoarchiv, Munich Another outstanding work by Polyclitus was his gold and ivory statue of the goddess. The Roman writers Pliny and Pausanias listed the names of about twenty sculptors of this school. In contrast to his contemporary Phidias, whose favorite subjects were gods and goddesses, Polykleitos portrayed mortals. The book covers all aspects of this celebrated sculpture with incredible detail, and the beautiful illustrations offer an entire course on classical sculpture and Greek aesthetics.
We should be so lucky to have the author cover Phidias and Praxitles with the extraordinary expertise this volume demonstrates. Pythagoreans were concerned with finding some underlying pattern in visual phenonmenon. He designed the great theater at Epidaurus. Of the numerous copies, an over-life-size marble version from Delos National Museum, Athens and a large terra-cotta statuette Metropolitan Museum, are outstanding. Hair, eyes, lips and teeth could be rendered in other colors or materials. In a way, it may be said that the statue reflects the ancient Greek obsession with striving for perfection, though this was accompanied by the awareness of its impossibility. Yet, his body—proportional, balanced, naked, strong, and exuding confidence—is one that the viewer might aspire to achieve, but never could.
He worked principally in bronze and made a number of statues of athletes. Polykleitos's idea of symmetria and the pursuit of the to kallos and to eu was probably influenced by exposure to the ideas of Pythagoras of Samos active in the late sixth century B. This volume resulted from a 1989 symposium held at the University of Wisconsin—Madison and the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Artists placed increasing emphasis on the ideal man, who was depicted in heroic nudity with a young, athletic body that was naturalistic in musculature and pose. The original statue was in bronze; it is known from many copies, including excellent marble copies Museo Nazionale, Naples; Uffizi, Florence. The sources also say that Polykleitos cast a statue to demonstrate the principles of his Kanon.
Foxhall, Lin, and John Salmon, eds. Art, Desire, and the Body in Ancient Greece. By this Polykleitos meant that a statue should be composed of clearly definable parts, all related to one another through a system of ideal mathematical proportions and balance. In art of the High Classical period ca. The original was by the mid fifth century Greek artist Polykleitos or Polyclitus. In the Doryphoros, its right hip goes up and right shoulder lowers, due to the added weight on its right leg.
The original, like the other major works of the period, was bronze, but because of the intrinsic value of the bronze, the work was melted down long ago. A tree trunk, or other strut, was often added to marble copies for support. When one hip goes up, the shoulder on that side lowers, and the opposite becomes true for the other side of the body. The figure is squarely built and stands in a relaxed contrapposto position, weight on right leg, left hand bent backward to hold a spear shaft over his shoulder. This is most evident in what we know as weight shift where the artist distinguishes a weight bearing leg versus a free leg.
The stocky torso is treated in an almost architectonic fashion, with chest and abdominal areas sharply separated from one another. Pythagoreans also saw reality as having a pattern of oppositions. The effect of the original Doryphoros is perhaps echoed in a pair of free-standing bronze figures discovered in 1972 off the coast of southern Italy near the town of Riace. Many of the essays offer extended analysis and detailed illustration of his surviving sculptures, later copies of his work, and reflections of his style in sculpture, paintings, coins, and other art in Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor. His scientific approach created a simple but balanced figure, which quickly became an exemplary model of the Classical ideal. Polykleitos, The Doryphoros, and Tradition. Their fascination with number was directly connected to this belief that in number can be found the key to physical bodies but also of abstract qualities like justice.