The essence of the Equity Theory lies in this sense of motivation through perceived fairness. Paul D Sweeney and Dean B. Sweeney and McFarlin 1997 found this type of justice to be more important for women than for men. Outcomes are the consequences positive or negative that an individual receives as a return for their input. The results showed that although the use of performance indicators was pervasive, the respondents were apathetic with regards to the effectiveness of these performance measurements for budgetary concerns and operational processes within the government unit. Equity Theory Unlike basic motivation that consists of offering a reward such as pay for an action, the Equity Theory looks beyond just the individual and includes factors in the individual's setting that may affect motivation through comparison.
The researchers first administered tests to the participants to determine their level of equity sensitivity. The participants were then assigned randomly to either under reward or over reward conditions. As for the cognitive options, the employee distorts his own inputs or outcomes by underestimating his own performance so that the inputs will match the output; distort the inputs or outcomes of others by thinking that others earn more because they probably deserve it; change the comparison others by choosing a different benchmark for them to feel better. The highly productive worker will then become de-motivated to continue at their high output levels. Generally the extent of demotivation is proportional to the perceived disparity with other people or inequity, but for some people just the smallest indication of negative disparity between their situation and other people's is enough to cause massive disappointment and a feeling of considerable injustice, resulting in demotivation, or worse, open hostility.
Input includes hard work, skill-set, motivation, enthusiasm, and technical know-how. Definition of equity An individual will consider that he is treated fairly if he perceives the ratio of his inputs to his outcomes to be equivalent to those around him. Thus, in a business setting, one might feel that his or her compensation is equitable to other employees', but one might view the entire compensation system as unfair Carrell and Dittrich, 1978. Work towards your goals consistently. Global Application of Equity Theory While there have been various attempts at breaking down the cultural barriers that have developed within organizations across the globe, one factor that continues to need research is how cultural differences influence the equity theory Fadil, Williams, Limpaphayom, and Smatt, 2005.
The means of reducing inequity will vary depending on the situation and will not all be equally satisfying to an individual Adams, 1963. Locke, Fundamental human needs, Goal 813 Words 4 Pages and authority are closely related but theoretically different concepts Faeth 2004. The Academy of Management Review , 12 2 , 222-234. Eventually, employee input may fall. The motivation was categorized into factors by Herzberg; motivators and hygiene. The model also encompasses the more collectivistic cultural notion of equality. The more inequitable the relationship, the more distress individuals feel.
The second involves the person assessing coworkers' or friends' ratios of inputs and outputs. Second, if the compared ratios are not equal, then there is inequity. Vroom's Theory: This theory was based on the belief that employee effort leads to performance and performance leads to rewards. Given the unique characteristics that each student possess, the amount of effort exerted by an average student does not always equal the amount of effort exerted by an outlier in class, yet the results are the same or sometimes exceeded by the outlier. The person who gets too much may feel guilt or shame. Outputs can be both tangible and intangible. This thinking was changed with the research conducted known as Hawthorne Studies, by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932.
Abraham Maslow, Employment, Job satisfaction 1071 Words 4 Pages Leadership Theories Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Leadership Theories with the following information: Identify five leadership theories. Outputs are everything we take out in return. Persistence: How long a person keeps on trying? Distributive Justice Outcomes are spread evenly and fairly throughout an organization Stecher and Rosse, 2007. This type of plan, called a cafeteria style, allows employees to select outcomes that they value most. Other possible outputs the employer can provide are growth and advancement opportunities, a quality reputation, stimulating work and a sense of accomplishment. The proposition of the study was that some individuals are uniquely sensitive to perceptions of equity or inequity and will, in turn, react accordingly based upon their perceptions. Relationships held between supervisors and employees must have equity in order to succeed and maintain perceived justice.
For example, employees weigh what they put into a job situation input against what they get from it outcome and then compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of others. Industrial and organizational behavior 5th ed. Co-workers use it to measure their total value and to determine what levels of output they should achieve. Keywords: strategy, employees, compensation, motivation. In other words, when employees are not able to see whether or not resources are distributed fairly, they instead examine the procedures to determine the fairness of an outcome.
By having a solid understanding of theory they will be more prepared to address motivation by applying their knowledge on the job. In other words, the benevolent prefers to be under-benefitted. Motivation is a very big word. It explains why a promotion or raise rarely has the desired effect. Some people reduce effort and application and become inwardly disgruntled, or outwardly difficult, or even disruptive. Inputs This equity theory term ecompasses the quality and quantity of the employees contributions to his or her work.
Lesson 5: Equity Theory: Is what I get for my work fair compared to others?. Equity Theory Adams 1965 developed a theory on motivation to attempt to explain behavior influenced by the norm of equity Lane, Irving M. Work is required, but the work is justified given the expected gain to the worker. Motivation is a word popularly used to explain why people behave as they do. Additionally, the researchers proved their position that the work of the underpaid group would be of poorer quality than the group who experienced fewer feelings of inequity the higher paid group. Lewin 1941 developed the study of leadership by introducing the concept of social power in terms of the differential between interpersonal force and resistance. Using the equity theory of motivation as a guide, there are four basic groups that people will use for this identification process.
In this way, no actual change of inputs or outcomes occur but the elementary school principal justified changes in the perception of inputs. By following an established code of conduct managers must ensure an environment of equality and fairness as they issue rewards based on standard. They should be able to set goals for their team and help them create a personal development plan. The following are the five major equity theory examples that have helped in understanding motivation. These perceptions of inequity are perceptions of , or more specifically, injustice. Journal of Advanced Nursing , 31 4 , 884-891.