As a rule, a researcher should always try to collect and analyze secondary data before moving to the collection and analysis of comparatively costly and time-consuming primary data. For example, if you are researching the marketability of a new washing machine, your target population may be newlyweds that have just purchased a home within the last 90 days. Sponsored The source of primary data is the populace test from which you gather the information. You need to determine your target population and the size and type of sample you will draw from the target population before you commence data collection. What is being observed and why? Information are like raw materials or inputs in an enquiry. In some cases secondary data may be inadequate or unusable. Focus Groups When you use a focus group as a data collection method, you identify a group of 6 to 10 people with similar characteristics.
The choice to a large extent depends on the preliminaries to data collection some of the commonly used methods are discussed below. First, make sure the questions and choices are unambiguous. In essence, the questions the researchers ask are tailored to elicit the data that will help them with their study. The data which are primary at one time may be secondary at another. Primary data increases the reliability and authenticity of research and in most of the scientific researches primary data are used. Also known as the first hand or raw data.
Obtaining primary data also requires more time as compared to gathering secondary data. Data Collection Techniques There are two sources of data. Such data is usually collected solely for the research problem to you will study. Example: Suppose someone uses a compass as a guide in going from one end of the school to the other. If you mail questionnaires, include a cover letter and return postage.
Experiments consist of logical series of actions that result in the answer to your query. They are limited in the amount of information that can be expressed, which can in turn limits the depth of the research. The first problem with primary data is that it is costlier to acquire as compared to secondary data. Surveys These are basically questionnaires with a set of carefully designed questions posed to your target population. Treatment Group: The portion of a sample or population that is exposed to a manipulation of the independent variable is known as the treatment group. It gives fairly correct result as the enumerators directly collect the information. This method also has several weaknesses.
Groups are given pretests, then one group is given a treatment and then both groups are given a post-test. Sample Research Article: Focus Groups Richard Krueger 1988 , describe the focus group as a special type of group in terms of purpose, size, composition, and procedures. The final list of ideas becomes the focus of further research and discussion. The interview is basically conducted in social science studies. With proper care to eliminate bias from your methodology, you can obtain accurate results to address the issues you seek to clarify. Findings would be used to develop a theory or philosophy of leisure. Data collected by this method are not affected by the personal bias of the investigator.
Population census all over the world is conducted through this method. Google survey is widely used as online method for data collection now a day. Some common collection methods include: Focus Groups A focus group usually consists of a discussion among 8-12 people from your sample facilitated by a moderator. Next, you have to utilize a certain tool to gather the data from the chosen sample. This method has the advantage of being cheaper and taking less time as compared to case-control and cohort. Observation alone cannot suffice in natural sciences. Experimental Treatments Experimental designs are the basis of statistical significance.
It is used to quantitatively studying mass media. After identifying the cases and controls, you move back in time to observe how your event of interest occurs in the two groups. Setting the Stage Before you begin the data gathering process, you must first decide how to conduct your research, what observations to make, what questions to ask, and how to be certain that your process is unbiased. Primary data are collected afresh and for first time while secondary data are already collected. There are many paid online survey services too.
In this lesson, you'll learn what primary data is. The steps used in a quasi design are the same as true designs. These participants are selected because they have certain characteristics in common that relate to the topic of the focus group. However the data collected may lead you to infer population relationships that do not exist. The main limitation with mailed questionnaires is you are likely to get a low response rate.
The group discussion is conducted several times with similar types of participants to identify trends and patterns in perceptions. Neither the researchers nor the members of the two groups will be aware of which group is which. For example, you can determine the relationship between the price you set for a product and the quantity that customers purchase. Once you have determined your target population, you will need to decide how to represent this population in your study. Data gathered through perception or questionnaire review in a characteristic setting are illustrations of data obtained in an uncontrolled situation.