What he finally said, after a long exordium, was that at the earliest opportunity a democratic congress should determine France's political future. The exordium she had so carefully prepared during her walk was eluding her. In this clause, the person who is creating the will, who is frequently known as the , identifies themselves and specifies their role in establishing this legal document. For, according as his temper is, harsh or mild, pleasant or grave, severe or easy, the cause should be made to incline toward the side which corresponds with his disposition, or to admit some mitigation or softening where it runs counter to it. Whoever makes these reflections will know where he should naturally begin. .
The name of the place of residence of that person. Such seems to be that of Demosthenes for Ctesiphon, in which he requests the judges to please permit him to reply as he thinks suitable rather than to follow the rules prescribed by the accuser. It is very important that the identity of the Testator be free of any doubt, not only to family members but to others who may be called upon at a future date to confirm the identity of the Testator. This is a hazardous point, and is conducted with more safety to the orator when in a large assembly where corrupt judges are restrained by fear, and the upright have the majority. On those terms only can the minds of the auditors be made responsive and the cause that the speaker has at heart be won.
To proceed from one part to another, by some ingenious thought which disguises the transition, and to seek applause from such a studied exertion of wit, is quite of a piece with the cold and childish affectation of our declaimers. The exordium, or introduction, is that part of the discourse which is pronounced before the subject is entered upon. From what has been said, it appears that different causes require to be governed by different rules; and five kinds of causes are generally specified, which are said to be, either honest, base, doubtful, extraordinary, or obscure. Other functions of introductions, according to Aristotle, include making the audience well disposed toward the rhetor and the issue and grabbing their attention. As Cicero says of himself, he is not unaware that some will find it strange that he, who for so many years had defended such a number of people, and had given no offense to anyone, should undertake to accuse Verres. Afterward he shows that if, on the one hand, he accuses Verres, still, on the other, he defends the allies of the Roman people. Some people even go so far as to make arrangements for the care of pets in their will.
Your exordium was so singularly clear, that I did not understand you before. Beginning his exordium with high-minded praise of the intellect, he declares that the contemporary world's rightful rulers are the wise and moral. Its air of simplicity, the judge not being on his guard against it, begets belief, and tho the discourse in all other parts be elaborate and written with great accuracy, it will for the most part seem an extempore oration, the exordium evidently appearing to have nothing premeditated. And in fact, what good will can I expect from you when in as great an assembly as this I recognize almost every face within eyeshot as unfriendly to me? Other common, basic elements of a will are the identification of the executor s , naming of beneficiaries, listing of assets, and assignments of those assets to beneficiaries in the form of bequests. Thus, in speaking for a person of consequence, we may lay some stress on the judge's own dignity; for one of mean condition, on his justice; for the unhappy, on his mercy; for the injured, on his severity.
The syllogism takes the form of a America consists of a promise of freedom, b the Negro in America still is not free, therefore, c America has defaulted on its promise. It is the exordium of a rhetorician, not of an historical critic. This, as most authors agree, is accomplished by making them friendly, attentive, and receptive, tho due regard should be paid to these three particulars throughout the whole of a speech. It can be very simple and basic, or long and detailed. Fear, too, sometimes must be removed, as Cicero, in his defense of Milo, endeavors to assure the judges that Pompey's army, drawn up about the Forum, is for their protection; and sometimes there will be an occasion to intimidate them, as the same orator does in one of his pleadings against Verres.
It is his notion of freedom, and at once the exordium and peroration of his eloquence. Undoubtedly many things are taken into the exordium which are drawn from other parts of the cause or at least are common to them, but nothing in either respect is better said than that which can not be said so well elsewhere. It will not be amiss, likewise, to remove any seeming obstruction. If nothing occurs to help us out, let us see what may hurt the opponent. From the cause compassion also sometimes arises, whether we have already suffered or are likely to suffer anything grievous. Sometimes honorable mention may be made of him, as when we pretend to be in dread of his interest and eloquence in order to make them suspected by the judges, and sometimes by casting odium on him, altho this must be done very seldom. Since many individuals have the same or similar names, it is always a good idea to include middle names or initials whenever known.
It may happen sometimes, too, that the judge is our enemy, or the opponent's friend. An ill-pronounced exordium may well be compared to a visage full of scars, and certainly he must be a bad pilot who puts his ship in danger of sinking, as he is going out of port. This is necessary because he must win the attention and trust of his before he can make his more militant plea. But the manner just pointed out, it will be very proper to observe in it, and to wear down all impressions to the contrary made by the opposite side, that as our situation will be deplorable if we should be defeated in our expectations, so, on the other hand, the behavior of our opponent would be insolent and haughty. Not only is it the opening paragraph of the Will or Codicil, it is also the place where the Testator is identified and the Testator's intentions are made known. But nothing else will so well suit an exordium as modesty in the countenance, voice, thoughts, and composition, so that even in an uncontrovertible kind of cause, too great confidence ought not to display itself.
There are many instances of causes of unseemly appearance, as when general odium is incurred by opposing a patriot; and a like hostility ensues from acting against a father, a wretched old man, the blind, or the orphan. For the commencement, constituting the introduction and recommendation of the subject, should tend immediately to mollify the hearer and conciliate his favor. The major premise of the second argument is that the American Founding as expressed in the and Constitution constituted such a promise. Stubb's exordium to his crew is given here at large, because he had rather a peculiar way of talking to them in general, and especially in inculcating the religion of rowing. The Beatitudes should be seen, according to Betz, as an exordium for the entire Sermon. But I would never counsel this before a single judge, unless every other resource was wanting. The exordium clause also effectively lays out to the readers a few basic premises upon which the rest of the document is based.
Security is always odious in a pleader, and a judge who is sensible of his authority tacitly demands respect. Then his mind is to be roused and agitated by hope, fear, remonstrance, entreaty, and even by flattery, if it is thought that will be of any use. Herein, therefore, it will be better and more suitable for an advocate to act than for the person himself; because when pleading for another he can praise without the imputation of arrogance, and sometimes can even reprove with advantage. Hence the care of the ancients for concealing their talents. As musicians make a prelude for obtaining silence and attention before they play their selections, so orators, before they begin their cause, have specified by the same application that which they say by way of preface for securing for themselves a kindly feeling in the listeners.
The advocate for the other side may likewise furnish sufficient matter for an exordium. By extraordinary is understood that which is contrary to the opinion of men. The clause serves to arrange the arguments for the will and identify the people and entities that are likely to play a key role in the procedures to follow. As the confidence observable in some orators may easily pass for arrogance, there are certain ways of behavior which, tho common, will please, and therefore ought not to be neglected, to prevent their being used by the opposing side: these are wishing, warding off suspicion, supplicating, and making a show of trouble and anxiety. By the time I had finished this exordium, Melons had disappeared, as I fully expected. Simple causes admit of a shorter exordium; the complex, doubtful, and odious, require a longer exordium. As yet we are not favorably received by the auditors, their attention is not entirely held, but when once they conceive an esteem and are warmly inclined toward us, then is the time to hazard this liberty, especially when we enter upon parts the natural fertility of which does not allow the liberty of expression to be noticed amidst the luster spread about it.