Some Marxist commentators see genre as an instrument of social control which reproduces the dominant ideology. The possibility of an infinite number of types alarmed of the time because their assumption was that rigorously applied would uncover the underlying divine nature of creation, and now it appeared that rigorously applied empiricism would only uncover an ever-growing number of types and subsequent sub-types. Genres offer an important way of framing texts which assists comprehension. How we define a genre depends on our purposes; the adequacy of our definition in terms of social science at least must surely be related to the light that the exploration sheds on the phenomenon. As such, it is dynamic, because the conditions of social activity are always in flux. Each member alters the genre by adding, contradicting, or changing constituents, especially those of members most closely related to it.
Carolyn Miller describes genre as a social construct and social action, providing the writer with a socially recognizable way to make his or her intentions known 157-58. Texts often exhibit the conventions of more than one genre. While this is a commercial driven critique of genre theory in film, that is not to say that the audience does not participate in this. Johnny Depp plays, Captain Jack Sparrow, not your average pirate, in his quest for glory and a ship of his own. And since each genre is composed of texts that accrue, the grouping is a process, not a determinate category. Raising a hand is the correct response to speaking in turn in that particular social setting.
Lanham, Md: Bucknell University Press; 2011. Related to the ideological dimension of genres is one modern redefinition in terms of purposes. Though often set against contemporary political backdrops, shooting the bad guy of the day is often as far as the message extends. Similarly, in Tracing Genres Through Organizations: A Sociocultural Approach to Information Design, Clay Spinuzzi asserts that the use of certain tools in certain situations can help users to act purposefully in that activity. Starting with All Quiet On The Western Front 1930 , a film based on a book written by a soldier during World War I, war was presented to its audience as something terrible and difficult for the human psyche to cope with. Genre knowledge orientates competent readers of the genre towards appropriate attitudes, assumptions and expectations about a text which are useful in making sense of it. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
For Spinuzzi, and other genre theorists studying the social aspects of genre like Carolyn R. To what extent does this text stretch the conventions of its genre? In the 1920s to 1950s, genre films had clear conventions and iconography, such as the heavy coats worn by gangsters in films like 1931. Genre theorists might find much in common with schema theorists in psychology: much as a genre is a framework within which to make sense of related texts, a schema is a kind of mental template within which to make sense of related experiences in everyday life. Contemporary theorists tend to emphasize the importance of the semiotic notion of intertextuality: of seeing individual texts in relation to others. Genre theory offers a way of thinking about how language depends on context. The mood is the emotional tone of the film e.
Indeed, a genre in any medium can be seen as embodying certain values and ideological assumptions. Genre, a category of artistic production characterized by similarities in composition and style, is a term used to discuss literature, music, art, and film. This film, North by Northwest, helped inspire producers Albert R. The Internet, as a context, has produced multiple writing genres: emails, blog entries, tweets, and Facebook updates. Literary genre studies is a approach to the study of and genre theory in , , and other. By close reference to the text, explore the range and effectiveness of this mix. Dictionnaire d'analyse du discours Seuil, 2002.
This enables viewers to understand the evolution of film genres as time and history morphs or views and ideals of the entertainment industry. And even going deeper, there are sub-genres, super-genres, and indeed what is technique, style, mode, formula or thematic grouping to one may be treated as a genre by another Bordwell 147. Creating categories promotes organization instead of chaos. Words: 1039 - Pages: 5. Also, due to the interrelatedness of genres, none of them is clearly defined at the edges, but rather fade into one another. Thus, the situation controls what type of rhetorical response takes place.
In addition to the definitional and family resemblance approach, there is An Introduction to Genre Theory another approach to describing genres which is based on the psycholinguistic concept of prototypicality. When placed in an unprecedented situation, a rhetor can draw on antecedent genres of similar situations in order to guide their response. What inferences about people and their motivations did your genre identification give rise to and how far were these confirmed? People interact within genres daily. The same ideological theory can be applied to how one serves different purposes, creating either separate genres or modernized micro-genres. How open to negotiation is your response are you invited, instructed or coerced to respond in particular ways? The setting is the environment where the story and action take place e. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
David Morley 1980 notes in relation to television differential social access to the discourses of a genre. Plot and Story The feature-length film I chose was The Help 2013 , which is an American Drama film depicting the lives of black maids and their white employers exposing the racism that the black maids faced on a daily basis. Genre was one of the principles which all of the groups barring one of the youngest used in this task. Over time, the criticism of science fiction film shifted toward genre theory, a focus on the generic characteristics of science fiction film that both delineates the history of the genre and develops the definitive characteristics. Berkenkotter and Huckin redefine genre as social cognition.
What responses does the text seem to expect from you? This system offered first beauty, and then the sublime as the taxonomical device. A rhetorical situation is situations in which a story and a scenario is presented and explains a situation that could possible occur in real life, therefore giving a situation in which the reader can assume the outcome; a certain form of communication to entail a situation. Keywords: , , , , , Paul Young Paul Young is director of film studies and assistant professor of English at Vanderbilt University. An Introduction to Genre Theory 10 4. Genre affects how films are broadcast on television, advertised, and organized in. We all have expectations from these very different genres, all of these being fulfilled by McEwan. Current genre theory, however, delves deeper.
The Western Stagecoach was a groundbreaking western that paved the way for future westerns The Western is the one of the most recognizable and enduring genres of film in the American film industry. It relates to the purpose of the genre e. If one performs a ritual associated with a system of ritual, one can be said to be practicing as a member of that system. For example: when you are watching a disney movie, which is a. An interpretative emphasis on genre as opposed 5 to individual texts can help to remind us of the social nature of the production and interpretation of texts. Action is the genre I have chosen. The spaghetti western is the term used to describe the set of western films made by Italians.