The mingling of African American and white workers was disconcerting for some, however, and because of racist anxieties the mass demonstrations were discontinued. The strike started in Baltimore and spread across the entire nation. In the 1880's, there were nearly 10,000 strikes and lockouts and in 1886, nearly 700,000 workers went on strike. On 16 July a spontaneous strike erupted in Martinsburg, , and quickly spread to cities including St. He served as governor of Ohio from 1877-1878. Future Labor was in jeopardy as well. Also in July, the Pennsylvania Railroad announced that it would double the length of all eastbound trains from Pittsburgh with no increase in the size of their crews.
The soldiers saw that a captured artillery piece was positioned within a hundred yards of the roundhouse; they concentrated fire around it to prevent the rioters from manning and firing it. Increased workloads, petty tyranny, making workers pay their won train fares home, and the absence of any safety precautions embittered the railroad workers. Wages and conditions were terrible throughout the economy--workers had been hit hard by the depression of the early 1870s--but nowhere were they as unbearable as on the railroads. Albee captured an extraordinary series of photographs. Young restored order in Ohio, but he was unable to address many of the issues that had caused the strike. The robber barons and captains of industry of the last quarter of the nineteenth century were all under forty in 1861: Jay Gould, Jim Fisk, J. The violence of the Civil War was fresh, and the testing of national unity it represented equally recent.
And, in 1878, the opponents of workers' revolts began constructing the protective armories. Some workers did win a repeal of the onerous wage cuts that had triggered the strike in the first place, but most employees were forced to return to work without a pay increase. The length of the work day was calculated by miles rather than hours, and that mileage more than doubled. The Long Wave in the World Economy. Reign of the Rabble: The St. The county eventually paid about 2.
Eight soldiers were killed in clashes, and another 15 were wounded. Louis, Missouri, strikers temporarily gained control of the cities until federal soldiers reestablished order. Can you rely on yours? McCartin, author of Labor's Great War: The Struggle for Industrial Democracy and the Origins of Modern American Labor Relations, 1912-1921 David O. News of attempts to control boisterous crowds fueled worker protest and sporadic violence. They have money and they have the support of the united workingmen at Homestead. Many middle-class Americans saw these events as cataclysmic and deeply disturbing. Pittsburgh policemen were among those reportedly taking aim at the strikebreakers.
The big impact that the strike had on everything was that after the Great Railroad Strike, states formed new militias unit and National Guard armories were constructed in a number of cities due to some conspiracy statutes. At least 18 died in these clashes, and the fears of an uncontrollable class conflict spawned by this incident would long haunt the city and the nation. Gronlund, Laurence 1846-1899 : Under the name of Peter Lofgreen, Danish-born Gronlund who worked at various times as a teacher, a clerk, and a journalist was a leader of the St. The program is funded through grants from the U. They presided over the first mass industry, controlled the destiny of thousands and wielded immense political influence.
While the movement lasted less than a month, and ultimately ended in failure, it sparked a revolution which brought about today's modern unions. Railroad Strike of 1877 1877 Synopsis In 1877 an explosion of working-class protest rocked the. The soldiers immediately opened fire and once it was over, some 10 bystanders were killed and another 40 wounded. He also refused to stand with workers outside the union in a unified effort to bring about change. Police and local militia were reluctant to act against strikers and many sympathized with, or outright joined them. Also, one result was the increasing of the public awareness of railroad workers.
All freight traffic in the city was brought to a halt, and the strikers took over control of the and the railroad, and began managing the running of passenger trains. The history of Great Railroad Strike of 1877 is told in a factual sequence consisting of a series of short facts providing a simple method of relating the history and events of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. Strikes and protest actions started in Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Kansas City, St. Crowds gathered, uncoupled engines, and refused to continue operation until wages were reinstated. Railroad Strike of 1877 Fact 13: The protests involved large mobs of angry men and women.
State militia units from Philadelphia were ordered to Pittsburgh. Workers there had also requested arbitration and, after being denied, stopped all traffic. East Busway as of 2016, 5. Contributors include Joshua Brown, Steven J. This strike cause severe wage cuts, stopped railroad traffic , and the battles between strikers and troopers that broke out in an easily estimate of 26 states.
They fully expected that workers would accept the cut. I was indicted on 24 counts for conspiracy and arson, and finally tried and acquitted. The crowd added bricks and stones to the curses hurled against the armory. The Workingmen's Party gained a national presence. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was at the explosive center of this historic upsurge, but similar confrontations and struggles wracked cities throughout the eastern and midwestern portions of the country.