Also there is a possibility of certain wrong cases being included in the data under collection, consciously or unconsciously. Leaders can find themselves backed into a corner when persuading people to move in a direction or take a risk based on unsubstantiated opinions. Whereas the University had only three girls student at that time and one of them married to a teacher. Census and Sampling Techniques of Collection of Data There are two important techniques of Data collection, i Census enquiry implies complete enumeration of each unit of the universe, ii In a sample survey, only a small part of the group, is considered, which is taken as representative. For example the population census in India implies the counting of each and every human being within the country. Data on memory test can be compared with I.
We wish to envisage the behaviour of a man who, like all men. These resources are not meant to be comprehensive. But whatever standard of accuracy is once adopted, should be used throughout the process of collection or estimation. However, it may be noted that this method gives a very representative sample data provided neither bias nor prejudices influence the process of data selection. The first item between the first and the rth is selected as random. This will give him a more than commonsense understanding of what goes on in the use of formulas. Chapter 2 presents concepts of causality that help in determining when scientific evidence is sufficient for public health action.
We wish to disentangle the interwoven factors of heredity and environment. In India, the various plans that have been prepared or implemented, planners have made use of statistical data. Drafting the Questionnaire The success of questionnaire method of collecting information depends on the proper drafting of the questionnaire. Statistics and Business: Statistics is extremely useful in modern activities of business. Sampling methods are employed in industry in tacking the problem of standardisation of products.
Scope and Importance of Statistics : As far as scope and importance of statistics is concerned it is very vast. Efforts to Improve the Vital Records System The vital records system faces many challenges, including its decentralized nature, a lack of standardization of terms and procedures, and slow transitions to electronic systems. The data may be presented in the form of a graph, diagram or through an average, or coefficients etc. Statistics is used in the fields of business, math, economics, accounting, banking, government, astronomy, and the natural and social sciences. Marketing: Statistical analysis are frequently used in providing information for making decision in the field of marketing it is necessary first to find out what can be sold and the to evolve suitable strategy, so that the goods which to the ultimate consumer.
Suppose if the government wants to revise the pay scales of employees in view of an increase in the cost of living, and statistical methods will be used to determine the rise in the cost of living. Example: This distance of the moon from the earth is measured. Disadvantages of Sampling Method 1. A large number of statistical methods like probability averages, dispersions, estimation, etc. However, there were significant gender differences in physics learning perceptions.
However it should be ascertained that the informants really passes the knowledge and they are not prejudiced in favour of or against a particular view point. Importance in Social Sciences: In social sciences like sociology, psychology, education, economics, commerce, history etc. Accurate and timely documentation of births and deaths is essential to high-quality vital statistics. There is almost no human activity where its application is not needed. A Survey of Learning Preference and Perceptions was developed to collect the information for this study. In the second situation, the students have been assigned their position numbers in queue from 1 to 30. This study employed qualitative method in the form of survey document and interviews for data collection.
Functions of Statistics The functions of statistics may be enumerated as follows : i To present facts in a definite form : Without a statistical study our ideas are likely to be vague, indefinite and hazy, but figures helps as to represent things in their true perspective. So when a person goes through various procedures of statistics, it widens his knowledge pattern. It is not intended to substitute for the independent professional judgment of the treating clinician. He knows what his customers want; he should therefore know what to produce and sell and in what quantities. Demographic characteristics considered were age, student grade level, parents' occupation and level of education, high school senior grade point average, and educational goals. For example the population census in India implies the counting of each and every human being within the country.
We wish to study the social group, composed of individuals differing from one another. The data describe only one group on which these have been collected. Statistics of Public Finance enables us to impose tax, to provide subsidy, to spend on various heads, amount of money to be borrowed or lent etc. Through this research article, we have tries to discuss about the role and Importance of Statistics in various sociological and applied fields with their limitations also discusses the integration and co-ordination of statistical tools with the computer technology, which makes the calculation and interpretation data in very efficient and effective manner. Chapter 3 describes a set of analytic tools that can be extremely useful in finding and evaluating evidence-these include economic evaluation, health impact assessment, meta-analysis, and expert guidelines. Biology preparation, mathematics preparation, and additional mathematics and science preparation in high school were also positively related to performance.
Statistical methods are commonly used for analyzing experiments results, and testing their significance in biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, meteorology, research, chambers of commerce, sociology, business, public administration, communications and information technology, etc. The figures may be stated without their context or may be applied to a fact other than the one to which they really relate. Female participants tended to try to understand physics materials and relate the physics problems to real world situations while their male counterparts tended to rely on rote learning and equation application. Thus the statistical inferences are uncertain. Completion of the fetal death report is the responsibility of the birth attendant. Moreover, it helps in planning future military strategy of the country. Some uncertainty is inevitable since in some cases the inference drawn from the data of a sample survey or an experiment can be wrong.