From ancient times, the locals have practiced shifting cultivation to grow food. The leaves, which were so moist and fresh in early morning, now became lax and drooping, and flowers shed their petals. And the effort is to be towards harmonising the interests of the tribals with that of the forest; not tearing them asunder. The same model was subsequently built into the Wild Life Protection Act, passed in 1972, with similar consequences. Cattle-trespass Act, 187 1, to apply 71. Both individual farmers and tribal communities were also encouraged to grow trees for profit. A land was notified as covered under Indian Forest Act, and then officials deemed this land area as recorded forest even if it was devoid of vegetation.
Government and its officers not liable for damage to such timber 50. The growth rates have been slow through these years. Acts prohibited in such forests 27. This was driven by the increasing demand for timber, and hence the growing significance of forests as a source of revenue. Forest was their own domain, their economy, social, religious and all found life-sustenance maintained by it.
The best known popular activist movement is the Chipko Movement, in which local women under the leadership of and , decided to fight the government and the vested interests to save trees. In the former, all local rights were abolished while in the latter some existing rights were accepted as a privilege offered by the British government to the local people which can be taken away if necessary. August 2016 Indian Treasure Trove Act, 1878 Enacted by Status: Indian Treasure Trove Act, 1878. Bamboo-based textiles and value added forest products industries are also being encouraged by the local officials. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Villagers could not take anything from these forests even for their personal use.
Record to be made by Forest Settlement-officer 14. These moves to empty the forest of forest communities finds no tolerance in the international law either. Once the Forest Settlement Officer settles all the rights either by admitting them or rejecting them, as per the provisions of the Act, and has heard appeals, if any, and settled the same, all the rights with the said piece land, boundaries of which might have been altered or modified during the settlement process, vest with the State Government. A little difference exists between the dry and wet seasons; but generally, the dry season, which lasts from July to December, is varied with showers, and the wet, from January to June, with sunny days. Power to make rules to regulate transit of forest produce. In the temperate zones, on the other hand, the stratum of uniform earth-temperature lies very deep.
The earlier forest policies had focused only on revenue generation. Politicians are chary of getting on the wrong side of the timber mafia, which has proved to be extremely generous during election time. The Act was amended twice, once in 1982, and again in 1991. The variety and distribution of forest vegetation is large: there are 600 species of , including Shorea robusta. In England the noonday sun in the month of June rarely inconveniences us or produces any burning of the skin; while in the tropics, at almost any hour of the day, and when the sun has an elevation of only 40° or 50°, exposure to it for a few minutes will scorch a European so that the skin turns red, becomes painful, and often blisters or peels off. About 90000 animal species, representing over 7% of earth's recorded faunal species have been found in Indian forests. Teak wood is typically seen as a benchmark with respect to grade and prices of other wood species.
We can thus understand how it is that, although in the months of June and July Scotland in latitude 57° north receives as much sun-heat as Angola or Timor in latitude 10° south, and for a much greater number of hours daily, yet in the latter the mean temperature will be about 80° Fahr. Environmentalism has, however, since captured the imagination of the court. They initiated the governance to formulate a rule relating to the forest, finally an Act as the Indian Forest Act 1865, to establish absolute possession over the Indian forest. It expressly states that the network of Protected Areas should be strengthened and extended. They started extraction from it, comprehending their inadequate knowledge in comparison to local competitors regarding the forest. All the tribal peoples shall be employed by the government in the expansion and protection of forests and its wildlife till their descendants get educated and diversify into industrial and service sectors. Together, India and these countries account for 67 percent of total forest area of the world.
Plantation timber includes teak, eucalyptus, and poplar, as well as spruce, pine, and fir. . We have here no apparent cause but the sandy soil and bare hills, which when heated by the equatorial sun produce ascending currents of warm air and thus prevent the condensation of the atmospheric vapour, to account for such an anomaly; and there is probably no district where judicious planting would produce such striking and beneficial effects. Power to release property seized under section 52 54. The gram sabha plays this role because it is a public body where all people participate, and hence is fully democratic and transparent. Since the Act came into force, it is mining interests that have been liberally represented in the cases before courts asking for permission to continue with mining despite the devastating effect mining has on land.
State Government may invest Forest-officers with certain powers. Power to acquire land over which right is claimed 12. Power to issue notification reserving trees, etc. Cattle are not permitted to trespass into the reserved forest, cutting, collecting of timber, bark or leaves, quarrying or collecting any forest products is punishable with imprisonment for a term of six months or with a fine which may extended to Rs. Those who have a patta or a government lease, but whose land has been illegally taken by the Forest Department or whose land is the subject of a dispute between Forest and Revenue Departments, can claim those lands see section 3 1 f and g. It is a part of forest cover and also classified into three classes viz.