How should they know whether Heinz should steal the drug? The Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages Essays on Moral Development, Volume 2. Martin Luther King, for example, argued that laws are only valid insofar as they are grounded in justice, and that a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. Stages cannot be skipped; each provides a new and necessary perspective, more comprehensive and differentiated than its predecessors but integrated with them. Realizing the limitations of the current stage of thinking is the driving force behind moral development, as each progressive stage is more adequate than the last. Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that level. These employees may have risen to management positions and are keen to secure a sense of rights and responsibilities among their subordinates. They were ages 10, 13, and 16.
Level 1: Pre-Conventional Morality Level 1, or Pre-Conventional Morality, typically seen in young children between the ages of 4 and 10 years old. One also wonders if his stages do justice to moral development in many traditional village cultures. The third level of moral thinking is one that Kohlberg felt is not reached by the majority of adults. Yet, people in Belgium for the most part still follow the law. To create the latest scoring manual, Kohlberg and his co-workers Colby et al. Level 3 consists of stage 5 and stage 6. Stage 4 had become the dominant stage by age 16.
At this level an individual obeys rules and follows society's norms even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. The child would apply obedience and punishment driven morality by refusing to skip school because he would get punished. The judge would look at all sides, and see that the druggist was charging too much. Very rigid way of thinking about right and wrong, where right results in no punishment while wrong results in punishment. This is achieved through and inevitable. Stage 6 is characterized by abstract reasoning and universality of ethical principles. It was during this work that Kohlberg decided to drop stage 6.
This development is gradual and continuous The ages for each stage are not definite. Stage 5 emphasizes democratic processes, and stage 6 considers how all parties take one another's perspectives according to the principles of justice. A person respects laws and authority figures and sees value in institutional order and keeping consistency for their own sake. I am grateful to Professor F. At this level, the rules and regulations should be clearly stated to avoid conflicts associated with role expectations Pollock, 2012.
This level includes the third and fourth stage of moral reasoning. Kohlberg claims that there are, but the evidence does not always support this conclusion. Most active members of society remain at stage four, where morality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force. At this stage, people have a principled conscience and will follow universal ethical principles regardless of what the official laws and rules are. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist, and the Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug, and this was much more than the Heinz could afford. Rules are seen as being fixed and absolute.
Kohlberg… 2170 Words 9 Pages Lawrence Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg conducted research on the moral development of children. When it comes to raising children, parents should fully understand that physical maturity does not equal moral maturity. For the stage two theorist, the world's perspective is often seen as. However, they perceive it differently. In traditional villages, however, there may be little to challenge a stage 3 morality; the norms of care and empathy work very well in governing the face-to-face interactions of the group.
The level includes stages 5 and 6. So, when these longitudinal findings emerged, he decided to develop a much more precise and adequate scoring system and, to some extent, to revise his definitions of the stages. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong. Men, on the other hand are more focused justice and law which is what this theory is really based on , making them more capable of moving to higher stages. He came up with several stages of moral development, which, though not without criticism from other psychologists, form a good starting point to think about these questions. The form and structure of these replies are scored and not the content; over a set of multiple moral dilemmas an overall score is derived. In America, we always want people to obey the law Some food for thought: Belgium's political system is not that set because of the inability to reach a common language that can be spoken by all people.
For example, one might expect that juvenile delinquents or criminals would typically reason at stages 1 or 2, viewing morality as something imposed from without stage 1 or as a matter of self-interest stage 2 , rather than identifying with society's conventional expectations stages 3 and 4. They believe that rules are handed down by adults or by God and that one cannot change them. Though his conclusions may be flawed, and even sexist, his methodology is important. In this way, the individual acts because it is morally right to do so and not because he or she wants to avoid punishment , it is in their best interest, it is expected, it is legal, or it is previously agreed upon. The theory offers three levels of moral development, each of which contains two stages. It is very interesting to note that the value system and moral behavior which includes ethics and morality is something that has dimensions to it, that it can be studied and theorized upon in comparison with the important values in society. It is based on abstract reasoning and the ability to put oneself in other people's shoes.
Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. My defense of this situation comes from a lack of a suitable alternative. This often occurs in moral dilemmas involving drinking and driving and business situations where participants have been shown to reason at a subpar stage, typically using more self-interest driven reasoning i. Moral becomes more than consideration of close ties to others. Stage theories play a dominant role in modern psychology, with stage theories serving as a framework for understanding cognitive development, social development, emotional development, and moral development. Identify and discuss at least three 3 Prima Facie Duties that you believe all of your law enforcement officers should fulfill.