References In the body of the lab report itself, a citation normally consists of the last name s of the author s and the year of publication Randolph, 1998. The information should clearly enable readers to decide whether they need to read your whole report. In this section move from the results to the theory. The introduction is more narrowly focussed than the abstract. Twenty-three subjects were tested in a repeated measures design with four different arrowhead angles and four line orientations. These results have important implications for human factors design applications such as graphical display interfaces.
The evolution of cryptic coloration. An animal may either maximize its daily energy intake energy maximizer or minimize the time spent feeding time minimizer in order to meet minimum requirements. Do not include sources that you have not used. Start by referencing the book as usual, and then add information about the part. Remember that lab reports are individual assignments. Proper Citation Format In Text Referencing When paraphrasing information from a source, proper credit must be given to the author of that source using the Name-Year system.
Another important reason for having a literature cited page is that it allows anyone who is unsure of your data to go back and verify that you reported everything correctly, thus eliminating any uncertainty. Bear in mind that a format, however helpful, cannot replace clear thinking and organized writing. Example: This citation references a manual that describes how to use purchased kit. There are thousands of different styles available for you to cite your sources. Central place feeders are very selective when choosing food that is far from the central place since they have to spend time and energy hauling it back to the storage site Schoener 1979.
The Abstract summarizes four essential aspects of the report: the purpose of the experiment sometimes expressed as the purpose of the report , key findings, significance and major conclusions. Always give credit where credit is due on your report. Direct quotes are rarely used laboratory reports and should be avoided. Beavers avoided certain species of trees and preferred trees that were close to the water. There seems to be a fine line between energy intake and energy expenditure in beavers that is not so easily predicted by any given theory. Does it adequately address the hypotheses being tested? Format varies slightly when citing journals and websites; refer to your style manual for specifics.
Methods This study was conducted at Yates Mill Pond, a research area owned by the North Carolina State University, on October 25 th, 1996. If there is anything about your experiment that you think could be improved upon, provide suggestions for doing so. Summer diet optimization by beaver. Mean tree distance from the water and mean tree circumference were also recorded. For this reason, if a source has more than one author, the last name of the first alphabetic author should be listed with an et al. So while you can choose practically any style that is appropriate, it is important to stick to that one style and remain consistent. Beavers have been shown to be discriminate eaters of hardwoods 3.
Figure 1: Input Frequency and Capacitor Value. In biology papers, information gleaned from the literature is usually paraphrased and the literature source cited by author s and date of publication, e. The Data section contains numbers. Name of Journal in italics issue number: pages. Three or More Authors 3 Genetic make-up may be a risk factor for some cancers Anonymous, 1994.
For more than two authors, et al. An abstract is a concise summary of your experiment. These are just some examples of the most common types of sources that you will run into. Other required information will depend on the source and also on the journal format you are following your instructor may ask you to follow a particular journal's format. The first historical extinction of a marine invertebrate in an ocean basin. Use the library especially the Science Citation Index to find more detailed information on the topic. Although the water samples were received on 14 August 2000, testing could not be started until 10 September 2000.
This is then expanded upon in your References section. This practice, known as plagiarism, is an intellectual crime. Generally, this is enough; however, the conclusion might also be a place to discuss weaknesses of experimental design, what future work needs to be done to extend your conclusions, or what the implications of your conclusion are. This page should be very informative and should stand out, perhaps by including a sentence that summarizes your results. Conclusion can be very short in most undergraduate laboratories. Measurements taken at the study site show that beavers avoided oaks and musclewood Fig.
Was your hypothesis correct, why or why not? Martin 1989 and Brown 1994 studied mating behavior of newts and came to the same conclusion as Smith 1989 did. Two Authors 2 Acid rain is harmful to freshwater lake ecosystems Williams et al. Experimental Procedure describes the process in chronological order. The same holds true for figures and other types of charted information. A brief excerpt on herbal remedies of Southeast Asia. In most cases, providing a sample calculation is sufficient in the report.
You should not just record a list of materials, but indicate when and how they were used during the process of completing your experiment. Please do not turn in your report to anyone's mailbox. . If an experiment was within the tolerances, you can still account for the difference from the ideal. Non-random patterns of roost emergence in big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus.