The emigration rate was 0. The only other category to register an increase in its percentage share includes area under non-agricultural use although the increase is quite modest from 3% to 7%. Analysis of the Environmental Impact of the Lowland to Highland Migration in the Western Ghat Region: Kerala. The infant mortality rate in Kerala has undergone a remarkable decline—from 128 per thousand live births for 1951—1961 to 13 in the early 1990s. In addition, incentives for expansion and the high profitability of rubber production have contributed toward expanded cultivation of rubber. Between 1979 and 1989, 50 percent of farmers in Thiruvananthapuram discontinued rice cultivation; in Malappuram, 82 percent. Furthermore, the inheritance system of the Syrian Christians, which allowed the partitioning of land among sons, provided farmers with the incentive to dispose of small, inherited tracts of land in Travancore in 3The information available on remittances is sketchy.
Of the total geographical area, only 80. On its agricultural lands, Kerala has witnessed major changes in cropping patterns, especially a substantial decline in the area used for rice and cassava cultivation and an increase in coconut and rubber cultivation. Incidentally, computerisation reduces the workload of the patwari to the extent that he does not have to record the permanent columns of the Khasra Register. The rate of natural increase was less than 2 percent before 1941 and after 1981 and greater than 2 percent during the three decades between 1941 and 1971. Although the benefits were initially realized by large capitalists, small farmers were later also attracted to the forestland. Realizing the importance of agricultural production for economic development, the central government has played an active role in all aspects of agricultural development. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi; and Government of Kerala.
Article shared by : After reading this article you will learn about the land use pattern in India. The whole of the reporting area is neither completely surveyed cadastral nor completely covered by complete enumeration of sample surveys. Travancore—Malabar Migration The movement of population from Travancore to Malabar began in the 1930s. It provides the space for homes, stores, offices, factories, schools, hospitals and other facilities that make up cities, towns and villages. The non reporting area is steadily declining from year to year as a result of the special efforts made by the central government. Many farmers in the midland region in Travancore had begun to grow commercial crops by the turn of the century, but the depression of the 1930s had placed small farmers under heavy debt.
Moreover, Kerala displays a unique rural—urban continuum. The tax on rice land was 20 percent of gross income, on land cultivating coconuts 1. Food and price policy also are decided by the central government. Deforestation Migration may have contributed to Kerala's balanced regional development by improving the productive capacity of the highland region and it may have enhanced the incomes of small farmers, but it also led to ecological imbalance in the high ranges because of the link between the influx of farmers and deforestation. Over the same interval, female life expectancy increased from 50 years to 75 years. In the coastal plain, however, the decline is less, primarily because wetland in the region has been acquired by the government and is therefore protected—at least temporarily. Thiruvananthapuram : Department of Rural Development.
After 1975 there was a clear shift away from food crops, mainly rice and tapioca, in favor of tree crops such as rubber and coconut and some of the export-oriented crops such as pepper, ginger, and coffee. Land has been put to many new uses, apart from traditional ones. Some of the land-slides in the Idukki District during recent years are thought to be the result of deforestation and the changing cropping patterns. In addition to population pressure, the commercialization of agriculture was an important factor influencing migration. Trends in Status of Education in India: A Present Scenarios Dr.
In the Thiruvananthapuram City Region, for example, rice fields accounted for 11 percent of the total area in 1966 Figure 5-5 but only 6 percent in 1991 according to satellite image data. The religious composition of Kerala is more balanced than that of the nation as a whole. Distribution of heavy metals and nutrients in the nearshore sediments and waters along the southwest coast of India. It lies between 8° 18' and 12° 48' north latitude and 74° 52' and 77° 22' east longitude. In some cases, village papers are not maintained; but the estimates of the area under different classes of land are based on the sample survey or other methods to complete the coverage. The population density of Kerala increased from 165 persons per square kilometer in 1901 to 747 persons in 1991. Similarly, the availability of sugar per capita increased from 4.
Therefore, at the outset, it is important to give an overview of land use pattern. Thiruvananthapuram: State Planning Council various issues. In the highlands of Kerala with its rugged topography and heavy rainfall, forests reduce the peak flow and prolong the duration of flow, thereby reducing surface runoff. Rice was the dominant crop, accounting for about 35 percent of the cropped area, followed by coconut, accounting for 21 percent Table 5-5. The patwari cannot, in most cases, identify the characteristics of various categories not to speak of the heavy burden this work imposes.
Chattopadhyay Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala The state of Kerala, located in the southwestern corner of the Indian Peninsula, came into existence in 1956. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Because yield increases during this period did not match the decrease in area, total production also declined. Food grains and pulses account for two-thirds of agricultural production in the mid-1990s. Availability of edible oils increased significantly, from 3. The Forest Conservation Act of 1980 seeks to prevent diversion of forestland to any other purpose.
July is the rainiest month of the year. The capital of modern Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram also was the capital of the historic state of Travancore. Moreover, the direct share of agricultural and allied sectors in total exports is around 18 percent. The use of remittances for nonproductive activities, especially acquisition of consumer items manufactured outside the state, has earned Kerala a reputation as a consumer state. Wheat was followed by rice, which had a production increase of more than 350 percent.
Indeed, changes in average farm prices at current rupees between 1970 to 1996 indicate that among the major crops grown in Kerala, rice registered the lowest price increase Table 5-7. The loss of rice fields to clay mining also results in a decline in the groundwater recharging capacity of the area. Because rice straw is the main source of roughage for feeding cattle, a reduction in rice cultivation also leads to reduced availability of cattle feed. From the 1920s to the 1960s Travancore experienced a much greater rate of population increase than did the Malabar region Table 5-9 , but the proportion of arable land under cultivation was lower in Malabar than in the Travancore region, providing a strong attraction for migrant farmers. For example, the direct conversion of paddy fields to settlements is not permitted, and the construction of settlements in wetland areas green belts is prohibited.