McGregor Theory X and Theory Y. This management style, in fact, hinders the satisfaction of higher-level needs. The first, usually called the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. They described supervision in the laboratory as being very participatory. Hertzberg believed that hygiene factors createda zero level of motivation and if maintained at proper level prevents negative typeof motivation from occurring. For example, the Hartford plant had an egalitarian distribution of influence, perceptions of a low degree of structure, and a more participatory type of supervision.
Behavioural scientists started to search new factsand techniques for motivation. Theory Y Theory Y expounds a participative style of management that is de-centralized. For a more detailed description of this survey, see John J. Motivators are intrinsic to the job. Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible.
But we also found that each of these effective units had a better fit with its particular task than did its less effective counterpart. The McGregor Theory X and Theory Y In 1960, developed a leadership theory McGregor Theory X and Theory Y about organization and management in which he represented two opposing perceptions about people. In terms of the practice of management, the workplace of the early twenty-first century, with its emphasis on self-managed work teams and other forms of worker involvement programs, is generally consistent with the precepts of Theory Y. While our major purpose in this article is to explore how the fit between task and organizational characteristics is related to motivation, we first want to explore more fully the organizational characteristics of these units, so the reader will better understand what we mean by a fit between task and organization and how it can lead to more effective behavior. McGregor makes the point that a command-and-control environment is not effective because it relies on lower needs for motivation, but in modern society those needs are mostly satisfied and thus are no longer motivating. When present, help in preventing dissatisfaction but do not increase satisfaction or motivation. This was appropriate for a laboratory in which a great variety of disciplines and skills were present and individual projects were important to solve technological problems.
Employees additionally tend to take full responsibility for their work and do not need close supervision to create a quality product. The classical organizational approach that McGregor associated with Theory X does work well in some situations, although, as McGregor himself pointed out, there are also some situations where it does not work effectively. Management Style and Control In a Theory X organization, management is authoritarian, and centralized control is retained, whilst in Theory Y, the management style is participative: Management involves employees in decision making, but retains power to implement decisions. In this situation, one would expect employees to dislike their work, avoid responsibility, have no interest in organizational goals, resist change, etc. We measured these attributes through questionnaires and interviews with about 40 managers in each unit to determine the appropriateness of the organization to the kind of task being performed.
Theory Y A management style, formulated by Douglas McGregor, that is based on a relatively optimistic view of human nature; assumes that the average person wants to work, accepts responsibility, is willing to help solve problems, and can be self-directed and self-controlled. Theory Y workers were characterised by McGregor as: - Consider effort at work as just like rest or play - Ordinary people who do not dislike work. Theory X McGregor stated that those employees who are separated into Theory X need to be micromanaged. These theories are termed as theories of motivation. Most management theorists today agree that Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y somewhat exaggerate the contrasts in management's view of workers, but the real value of McGregor's theories lies in the way they reveal just how much leadership depends on perception and expectation. Above assumptions are the results of social science research and determine such ability that an individual possesses, which should pointed-out by the organization with the aim to become extra effective.
Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. It refers to a degree to which a first level outcome e. A close reading of The Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and the possibilities that create enthusiasm. Solutions Empxtrack offer solutions for talent management. He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y. The task at Akron had already been clearly defined and that definition had, in a sense, been incorporated into the automated production flow itself.
This ensures work stays efficient, productive, and in-line with company standards. The authoritarian leadership style is therefore the most appropriate leadership style in Theory X. As a consequence, Stockton managers used a less structured pattern of formal practices that left the scientists in the lab free to respond to the changing task situation. Formal characteristics, which could be used to judge the fit between the kind of task being worked on and the formal practices of the organization. Do you recognize the practical explanation of do you have more suggestions? Therefore, the system of rewards and punishments works best for them.
McGregor recognized that X-Type workers are in fact usually the minority, and yet in mass organizations, such as large scale production environment, X Theory management may be required and can be unavoidable. The need-hierarchy theory must not be viewed as a rigid structure to be applied universally in all situations. Investing in our employees has always been good business for Genencor. Two of these performed the relatively certain task of manufacturing standardized containers on high-speed, automated production lines. People want to avoid work and they must be continually coerced and controlled.
Morse, Internal Organizational Patterning and Sense of Competence Motivation Boston, Harvard Business School, unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1969. The Douglas McGregor biography describes one of the most influential management theorists as a man whose revolutionary insights into the nature of leadership and management changed the relationship between managers and employees, paving the way for best practices implemented by some of today's most successful companies. Theory X - The Hard Approach and Soft Approach Under Theory X, management approaches can range from a hard approach to a soft approach. In doing so, Employees are expected to exercise a large degree of internal motivation. Unfortunately, employees can be most productive when their work goals align with their higher level needs. Although this interrelationship is complex, the best possibility for managerial action probably is in tailoring the organization to fit the task and the people. Consequently, the only way that employees can attempt to satisfy their higher level needs in their work is by seeking more compensation, so it is quite predictable that they will focus on monetary rewards.
Therefore, there was less need for individuals to have a say in decisions concerning the work process. Competence Motivation Because of the difference in organizational characteristics at Akron and Stockton, the two sites were strikingly different places in which to work. If you are a Premium Magoosh student and would like more personalized service from our instructors, you can use the Help tab on the Magoosh dashboard. If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our Free Newsletter for the latest posts on Management models and methods. Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work and that there is a pool of unused creativity in the workforce. This is not always true.