The Act also provides for the constitution of District Planning Committee. The provisions remained till the passing of the Act of 1947 and India attaining independence. States like Haryana, Orissa and Rajasthan have debarred the candidates, having more than two children, from contesting elections, with a view to contain population. The main features of this act are: a a 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj for all States having population of over 20 lakh; b Panchayat elections regularly every 5 years; c reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and women not less than one-third of seats ; d appointment of State Finance Commission to make recommendations as regards the financial powers of the Panchayats. Every panchayat has its own characteristic features and their working also differs from one another. After having been ratified by 17 state assemblies this bill came into effect as Constitution 73 rd Amendment Act 1993 w. Responsibility: Panchayats have two main responsibilities: 1.
Powers to Impose Taxes and Financial Resources A state may by law authorise a Panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls, fees etc. Promotion of small savings Essay 6. One of the center called Union or federal Government and other State or provincial Government. Construction of rural house xvii. In India, the Panchayati Raj now functions as a of in which gram panchayats are the basic units of. This tier was coterminous with the tehsil or taluka. This section needs additional citations for.
Extension and beautification of city. The entrustment of all planning and developmental activities to these bodies; and 3. In 1952, Government of India made first systematic effort to bring rural development through Community Development Program with the first Five Year Plan. Besides the Pradhan, the Up-pradhan is also elected. Phases of Panchayati Raj Institution in India The story of Panchayati Raj has been a story of ups and downs.
To help administration, an administrator is appointed by the government. The minor disputes among residents of village are also settled by the Village Panchayat. Second, the present system is not an implementing body of the development programmes. The structure of Pachayati Raj Institutions in India varied from state to state. What is the duration of the Local Government bodies? A key motivation of this act was the belief that local governments may be better placed than centrally appointed bureaucrats to identify and respond to the needs of the village.
Panchayats are the best agencies which can supply the political talent. This could be possible only when the villagers are able to organize themselves to think, plan, work and pay for the necessities and amenities for their welfare. The principal function of the Panchayat Samiti is to coordinate the activities of the various Panchayats within its jurisdiction. It is the people who must determine their own destinies and the destiny of the nation. Interested in General Knowledge and Current Affairs? All the illegible voters of the village are the members of the Gram Sabha. The most significant gain produced by election to the Panchayats is the emergence of women power in rural Bihar. This is democracy at gross level.
This disbursement should be based upon the recommendations of the State Finance Commissions. This scheme of rural development confers on the rural people the power of decision-making regarding developmental activities. The Ripon Resolution, which focused on towns, provided for local bodies consisting of a large majority of elected non-official members and presided over by a non-official chairperson. There are two types: permanent and impermanent. The chief of administration is an officer of the cadre.
Information about the Act, its short title, objectives, extent and commencement is given. During the British rule, the autonomy of panchayats gradually declined with the establishment of local civil and criminal courts, revenue and police organizations, the increase in communications, the growth of individualism and the operation of the individual Ryotwari ' landholder-wise system as against the Mahalwari or village tenure system. He is elected by the members of the Panchayat Samiti amongst themselves. Joshi inorder to amend Article 243 D of the Constitution of India. Post Independence, the first major development programme launched in India was Community Development Programme in 1952. On the one end favoured Village Swaraj and strengthening the village panchayat to the fullest extent and on the other end, Dr. We get ample references about the Panchayats in Manusmriti, Arthasastra and the Mahabharata.
Unfortunately, the Janata government collapsed before action could be taken on these recommendations. And, so began the stagnation and decline of self-government in villages. Powers are given to panchayat samiti to carry out the different functions out of which some are listed below: i. He prepares the budget of the Samiti and places it before the Samiti for approval. It also reserves the right to suggest measures for improving the functioning of the Panchayats.
Despite the popular appeal of transferring power to panchayats , the Sixty-fourth Amendment Bill was rejected by the Rajya Sabha. Article 40 of the constitution directs the government to establish panchayats to serve as institutions of local self-government. Indira Gandhi has also accepted the need for the mandatory provision. People used to contest election on individual basis. Though these institutions have been set since British time in India but due to one or the another reason they cannot flourish as it was expected and cannot achieve much. The legitimacy of the Panchayati Raj institutions came under questions. Among the first tasks that India had to assume was the formulation and execution of the first five year plan in the fifties.