The fabricated antennaoperates at 4. Use a rectangular lattice, with the default spacing of 0. The methodology of this project starts byunderstanding of the microstrip antenna technology. The target parameter is for the substrate to behave as metamaterial at 4. The fields are linearly polarized, and in the horizontal direction when viewing the microstrip antenna as in Figure 1a we'll see why in the next section. The setupof the experiment in measuring the radiation pattern is described chapter 3 Figure 4. Increasing thelength will reduce the resonance frequency.
The patch is of length L, width W, and sitting on top of a substrate some dielectric circuit board of thickness h with. This substrate has lowtangent loss which is 0. The dimension is as shown in figure 3. Thesetwo properties determine how a material will interact with electromagnetic radiation. Consider the microstrip antenna shown in Figure 1, fed by a microstrip transmission line. Reducing the length will increase the antenna resonance frequency. Microstrip antennas are becoming very widespread within the mobile phone market.
Fringing Fields for Microstrip Antennas Consider a square patch antenna fed at the end as before in Figure 1a. Hence, at the end of the patch the voltage is at a maximum say +V volts. In 1999, a group of researchers further simplified the geometry anddiscarded the periodic nature of pattern. Dielectric antennas such as dielectric resonant antennas iv. Refraction is a basic theorybehind lenses and other optical element that focus, changing direction and manipulateslight.
The measurement shows negative 15. The input impedance at the radiation edge is also computed. The first design a is the circularrings and the second design b is the split rings. Polarization shows the orientation of the electric fieldvector component of the electromagnetic field. Increasing the length will reduce the resonance frequency.
Reducing the antenna width will increase the antenna resonance frequency. Materials that exist and behave in this region are not readily available in nature. The main disadvantage of this method is using double layer substrateand needs proper alignment which is tedious in fabrication process. Normalized Radiation Pattern for Microstrip Patch Antenna. The length ofthe inset cut were tune to get the result.
In the simulated graph, the phase change at 2. This is one of the trade-offs in patch antenna design. The characteristics parameters of the substrate are described in theTable 3. The shape of the hoisted antenna was nearly square as we had hoped it would and the transmission line hung vertically at the correct location for evaluation and operation purposes. It is clearly seen that the return loss is the lowest at 30.
Highly sophisticated and complex optical devices are developed by carefully shapingmaterials so that light is refracted in desired ways. Another variant of patch antenna with the partially etched ground plane, also known as printed monopole antenna, is a very versatile antenna for dual-band operations. Microstrip line is used as a feeding techniquefor inset feed. Longer or shorter increase the reflection coefficient. Antenna gain is measured in dBi.
Radiation pattern provides information which describes how an antenna directs theenergy it radiates and it is determined in the far field region. It is approximately of one-half wavelength long. The radiation pattern could be divided into:i. This copper strip is connected electrically to the feedline at length L 1 from its open end. The width further controls the. As we can seeat 9.
Combining the electric dipole and magneticdipole structure can result to metamaterial substrate. Gain is closely related to directivity, while directivity is influenced by the radiation pattern. It is relatively easy to print an array of patches on a single large substrate using lithographic techniques. Moreover,investigation into designing the microstrip antenna with different patch shapes and sizesare vital. In contrast, when making a microstrip transmission line where no power is to be radiated , a high value of is desired, so that the fields are more tightly contained less fringing , resulting in less radiation.