Of course, the gods of Sāṅkhya are not classical Judeo-Christian-Muslim God; they are just extra-long-lived, perhaps very powerful beings within the empirical world, themselves compounds of matter and soul. The Samkhya philosophy combines the basic doctrines of Samkhya and Yoga. This is the preliminary phase of the evolution. The purusha of Samkhya could have evolved from this idea. According to it the inert Prakrti can function in such an orderly fashion only in the presence of Purusa.
Sāṅkhya is silent about the Vedas, about their guardians the Brahmins and for that matter about the whole caste system, and about the Vedic gods; and it is slightly inimical towards the animal sacrifices that characterized the ancient Vedic religion. Sometimes a distinction is made between a general or an ordinary and a peculiar or an extraordinary cause. You can follow any responses to this entry through the feed. Understood literally, this is not tenable—if the cause existed, why was it not perceived prior to the point called its production? In the absence of this co-operating power of energy, the effect cannot be made manifest. It is absolute, independent, free, imperceptible, unknowable, above any experience and beyond any words or explanation.
The hymns about Puruṣa may also have influenced Samkhya. Both are eternal and independent of each other. This bond was originally produced by the curiosity of the soul, and it is extremely strong because the ego identifies our selves with our empirical state: the body and the more subtle organs, including the material psyche. Sāmkhya is an philosophy whose accepts three of six proofs as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge. Both have the three Guṇa that, states the text, is in continual tension with one another, and it is their mutual interaction on Prakriti that causes the emergence of the world as we know it. Samkhya is realism as it considers that both matter and spirit are equally real.
Like Western logic, the Nyaya regards a cause as the sum-total of the conditions, positive and negative, taken together. They are devoid of space or mass. The Samkhya concepts and idea are present not only in the Upanishads but also in the , the Gita, the Puranas, the books on Ayurveda etc. As or , with his power of the beginningless , he brings forth this creation which is also beginningless, controls and rules it as the Lord within. Would it not be wrong to state that the Paramatman became non-existent after becoming the cosmos? Their names are quite obscure, perhaps intentionally: they resist any facile simplistic interpretation, forcing us to understand them from their description instead of the literal meaning.
The difference between the cause and the effect is only one of quality or form. The spirit is liberated when the discriminate knowledge of the difference between conscious puruṣa and unconscious prakṛti is realized by the puruṣa. Hence there is no philosophical place for a creationist God in this system. It is distinct from its cause and can never be identical with it. Its dynamism is attributed to its constituent gunas. The effect before it is produced is concealed in the cause. There was neither death nor immortality then; No distinguishing sign of night nor of day; That One breathed, windless, by its own impulse; Other than that there was nothing beyond.
The external organ is strictly bound to the present tense, while the psyche is active in the past and future as well memory, planning, and the grasping of timeless truths. The relation of the unmanifest and manifest nature is somewhat vague, perhaps because there were conflicting opinions on this question. The changes in the gunas and in the Prakriti may take two forms: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous. Puruṣa, the eternal pure consciousness, due to ignorance, identifies itself with products of prakṛti such as intellect buddhi and ego ahamkara. This is the doctrine of Nyaya. Its essence is affection, its purpose and activity is illuminating.
The unconscious primordial materiality, prakṛti, contains 23 components including intellect ,mahat , ego and mind ; the intellect, mind and ego are all seen as forms of unconscious matter. The organs manifest the object and the purpose of one's soul, not the purpose of anything outside of oneself, states verse 31 of the text. These are: Samkhya Sutras attributed to the founder of Samkhya, ; Tattva Samasa, which some authors Max Muller consider prior to Samkhya Sutras, and Samkhya Karika authored by Ishvara Krishna. The material cause and its effect are one, but practically different, since they serve different purposes. This evolution is conceived as an expression of Prakriti, but not a conscious one.
Likewise, the Jain doctrine of plurality of individual souls could have influenced the concept of multiple purushas in Samkhya. The Samkhyas uphold Parinama-vada, that the cause is continuously transforming itself into effect. The idea that the three gunas or attributes influence creation is found in both Chandogya and. Several manuscripts, with slightly variant verses are known, but these do not challenge the basic thesis or the overall meaning of the text. This is better explained by an illustration. The medieval era Matharavrtti text states that the Karika has seventy three verses. It is a system of thought which represents the world-as-we know-it to be the result of an evolution; but unlike modern science, they conceive this evolution a development from the higher to the lower; from the mental to the material.
Similarly, on account of our ajnana or avidya the Brahman too seems to us as this world and such a vast plurality of entities. We are accustomed to think that knowledge is a subjective elaboration of the perceived object. The senses powers of cognition, buddhīndriya are sight, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching—they are the abilities, not the physical organs themselves through which they operate. The internal organ as an inseparable unit is the principle of life prāṇa. The metaphor of movement of iron in the proximity of a magnet is used to describe this process. This is further confirmed by the scientists today. It is beautiful, and I am very happy to have it.
Samkhya describes how life emerges in the universe; the relationship between Purusha and prakṛti is crucial to 's yoga system. Thus, the Prakriti is prompted to produce. So when he shapes it out of clay he is the cause and the pot the effect. Prakriti is unconscious; its development from dormant mode to a dynamic one is spontaneous. The weaver is the efficient cause of the cloth. Naturally the three gunas which constitute Prakriti also constitute every object of the physical world. Rajas dust is the principle of change, energy and passion, while tamas darkness appears as inactivity, dullness, heaviness and despair.