It is difficult, however, to describe the cultural conditions fully enough to determine very closely the exact time at which the appearance of an invention is due. By Draper i860 , Angstrom 1854 , Kirchoff-Bunsen 1859 , Miller 1843 , and Stokes 1849. There is always something that the human being wants to know; there is thus a demand for knowledge as truly as there is an economic demand. There was an improvement in technique and a wider use of the flakes. Deduction of the theorem on the hexagon. This does not concern be- havior so much as the products of behavior. It seems to follow as a corollary that our superior culture is due to our higher mental evolution, i.
By Cailletet, Pictet, Wroblowski and Olzewski all between 1877- 1884. By Butlerow 1888 , Kekule 1888 , and Couper 1888. Of course, there may be physiological struc- tures determining such a type of behavior also. But popularly there is full recognition of mental ability but a neglect of cultural influence. And even such a trait as modesty which seems so closely identified with the distinctive biological character- istics of women is certainly greatly emphasized by social conditions. The cave man, had he the abil- ity of a modern genius, could not have Invented the steam engine, living as he did on the plane of culture existing during the last ice age.
Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. They do not seem to realize that cultural growth is caused largely by purely cultural causes. By Sabine 1852 , Wolfe 1852 , and Gauthier 1852. From such measurements it is seen that the northern French and the earlier native-born Americans belong to the tall racial type found in northern Europe whose centre of dispersion was probably the Baltic sea. She makes a good case for western technological innovation in printing, which she suggests may have been partly rooted in a desire to escape eastern hegemony. By Wheatstone 1845 , and Bain 1845. The more there Is to Invent with, the greater will be the number of Inventions.
There are several reasons why cultural traits tend to be popularly interpreted as biological traits. The selective nature of :he accumulation of material culture does not always mean than old forms are wholly lost; but rather that they are discarded by a particular group or part of a group. The phenomenon of hospitality is certainly more prom- inent in these agricultural regions than in the cities and towns of the east. Pugnacity and fighting seem to suggest immediately the original nature of man. Thus a mental pattern is ready- made, prepared since youth, and one brings such a ready-made pattern to the study of sociology or to the reading of history, which it may be re- marked is also usually written from this same mental pattern. The nature of man was seen to be very much like the nature of animals. By Lagrange 1808 , and Laplace 1808.
But what are these traits due to? To Ogburn, invention is the first and central factor, as mutation is to biological evolution Ogburn, 1950: 377. Acquired characteristics are thought to be so in- tegral a part of an individual as to be hereditary. Still another test that is sometimes used is the universality of the trait. It also grows or decays, and no doubt there are definite processes describing its change. They come as a result of a body of information gathered from innumerable sources during years of study.
By Wheatstone 1845 , and Bain 1845. It is true, that in the study of society, social phenomena, social problems, social organi- zation, and social processes, the cultural and his- torical factors have been neglected and there has been an over-interpretation in terms of the psy- chological and the biological factors; but such a condition does not justify a swing completely away from the psychological and wholly to the cultural. We shall first review some of the actual facts of the early evolution of our culture. In another and higher culture the same individual might be able to solve problems by the use of calculus. So that while women may be more interested in the personal than men, this differ- ence is either wholly due to culture or else is greatly accentuated by culture.
It Is hoped that the analyses which follow will add something to the knowledge of this field of Investigation. If these traits were considered from the purely biological point of view, the list of feminine and of masculine traits would probably be much smaller and certainly much less prominent, or if plotted In curves there would be great overlapping of the curves. Equally ambitious is the collection's effort to examine this theme by bringing together contributions from a variety of disciplines in the sciences and humanities. The fact that inventions vary greatly in their influence on further cul- tural changes makes this point clear. Why was it not Invented ten years earlier? Such differences may be occasioned by variations in instinctive tendencies, as hoarding or gregar- iousness, or by sentiments of sociability. The social heritage of a particular people also grows through the adopting of a portion of cul- ture in use by some other people. Coolidge in her most interesting book, Why Women are So.
In cases where cultural-blolog- ical-behavlor differs and the biological factor Is constant, the differences are cultural and the differences may be characterized as differences in cultural traits. His fondness for children is due in part to an inherited parental instinct. The existing state of the social heritage Is thus a very Im- portant factor In the Invention of a particular cultural object. By Hall 1729 , and Dolland 1758. Giddlngs has not been concerned particularly with culture as such.
The psychological basis for cleanli- ness of the Eskimo may be the same as that of the European, but the cultural difficulties of keeping clean are much greater among the Eskimo. . By Korschinsky 1899 , and DeVries 1900. The phenomenon of selective accumulation Is certainly true of material culture, but it may not be true for other parts of culture, such as religion, science, art, law and custom. In any case, in referring to the social mind, it should be remembered that the purely psychological man- ifestations which are an important factor of what is called the social mind are much affected by that inherited portion of our culture known as knowl- edge, science, belief, custom, etc. The conception of evolution was so profound that the changes in society were seen as a manifestation of evolution and there was an attempt to seek the causes of these social changes in terms of variation and se- lection, very much as changes in species had been accounted for. Animal psychology and physiological psychology have added greatly to our knowledge of human nature, yet left much of our curiosity about human motives and human spirit unsatisfied.
These implements are made apparently from accidental forms by a few retouches. It is very difficult to get a clear idea of the social mind in any terms. Comparison of refractivity of equimolecular quanti- ties by multiple function. But why does it ap- pear to have been Invented In only one place in the world? Within another 25,000 years and towards the close of the warm interglacial period, the stone industry reached a high degree cf development in the successive phases of the Acheu- lean industry. By James 1884 , and Lange 1887. To Spencer is due the conception of the funda- mental types of evolution, the organic and the superorganic. Of all the essays collected here, Williams's offers the most new information, and it is a valuable contribution to the growing body of work at the intersection of the history of technology and environmental history.