Under the Social-Responsibility Theory, ownership of media is mostly private and practice self-regulation according to standards, codes and guiding principles. There is no control or censorship. It could be as a broadcast commission or a media commission like agency that needs to address the deviations by practitioners. Also recommending that an official commission is the need of the hour to take care of grievances of media professionals. Many scholars have argued that political values in advanced democracies have significantly changed and specifically that the right and left have realigned along new value dimensions. The models of leadership used are dependent upon the individual attributes of the leaders, for example traits, values, self-identity, skills, and competencies Yukl, 2013, p.
This theoretical approach is a result of broadcasting and media ethics. Normative theories are proposed based on the widely accepted fact that media does not operate in isolation or without interaction with a social world. Early communication administrators such as Robert Hutchins head of the Commission on Freedom of the Press expressed concern over communication ethics in libertarian media cultures. The tasks of the press is to make a code of conduct and follow it, to develop a standard in journalism, to make journalism better, to protect journalists and to have penalties if any journalist violates the code of conduct. In a democracy we should first try the first method to rectify the defects through the democratic method.
Siebert, Theodore Peterson and Wilbur Schramm-brought out their Four Theories of the Press which went a long way in establishing a typology in the minds of journalism educators and students. Let me end with a quote by T. Also, the internet is open and unrestricted, with around 89. But, there are times when the media has severely damaged the reputation of some politicians and political parties through irresponsible journalism, leading to major conflicts in the society. Definitely, the practice of public relations is also affected by this change in the communication landscape. In Social Responsibility Theory, the press is taken to be for the people and society. Even negative contents may provide audiences with knowledge.
One of these rights was the right to pursue truth, and potential interferes kings, governors et al would or should be restrained. Authoritarian: The state, as the highest expression of institutionalized structure, supersedes the individual and makes it possible for the individual to acquire and develop a stable and harmonious life Mass communication, then, supports the state and the government in power so that total society may advance and the state may be viable and attain its objectives. Due to this, there are a lot of press houses which do things without any responsibility. The Authoritarian Theory describes the situation where states view the mass media as an instrument at all ties. The media also covers up on the negative things that happen under the communist leadership, not revealing the dangers and hardships North Koreans faced. Normative theory is a theory that describes a norm or standard of behaviour that ought to be followed as opposed to the one that actually is followed. Libertarian Theory involves some innate distrust of the role of the government and the state Jennifer Ostini, undated , and a belief that everybody has rights to information.
Using online search engines, it's now possible to find material to support almost any argument. Since direct and pure democracy is neither feasible nor practicable except in small habitats like villages, and for limited purposes, the deficiencies and the lacunae of the representative democracy need to be made good. In Indian democracy media has a responsibility, which is deeply associated with the socio economic conditions. Recommendations Focusing upon the specific defects of the media like paid news and branding tendency, there are largely two ways to remove these defects in the media. However, the Social-Responsibility Theory does not assume that anyone can use the media to publish anything like the Libertarian Theory.
After all, what good will the other older and newer theories like the authoritarian, libertarian, communist, democratic-participant, and development media theories do to any journalist? The four 4 theories are: The Authoritarian Theory The Libertarian Theory The Social Responsibility Theory The Soviet Community Theory Along the line, Denis McQuail criticized the above four 4 that, they are biased that is, they are western centered. When we take a look at the two 2 theories, unlike the authoritarian, here, the media is free from control by government or other powerful interests, sufficient to allow them to report and express freely and independently and to meet the needs of their audiences. Threats against journalists are rare, unlike those working under Soviet-Communist or Authoritarian media systems. Hence what is more essential is its stance on policy and choice of theory, which is a system of law like propositions and set of ideas that guide action or predict a consequence. Here, acting responsibly is by not spreading wrong news and panic.
Justice Mishra never said, nor intended to say, that her daughters were liabilities. Paid news: A second defect concerns the issue of paid news that has become prominent of late. These classroom experiences and more, made me draw at least one personal conclusion: perhaps the best theory of the press I could, or even journalists at that, relate to, is the social responsibility theory. Both theories have some similarities and differences. The Government of Ghana does not instruct any of the media houses on which programme to show on the television or which programmes to broadcast on radio. They focus on the relationship between the press and the government, ownership of the media and who controls press or media in the country.
It encourages total freedom to press and no censorship, but it should be regulated according to social responsibilities and external controls. Internet has indeed made it possible to disseminate information and ideas in real time across the globe. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publications, 1988. Other countries whose media apply the Libertarian Theory include: The Netherlands, and to a lesser extent, Hungary. Freedom of expression and access to information is guaranteed under Article 12 of the constitution.
Journalistic autonomy is the imperative the only valid responsibility for those who want to participate in journalism on a really human level, and when the philosophy and psychology of adjustment begin to make inroads in nations today, the concept of press freedom is changed to journalistic social-determinism or press responsibility. Even negative contents may provide audiences with knowledge. In the current theory as well as the Hutchins Commission report, the concept of public interest, inexplicitly, lies at the heart of the definition of social responsibility. The role of the media in countries applying the Soviet-Communist Theory is to act as an instrument of the ruling party to unite people of the state, and to carry out plans of the party and state, bringing about societal change. The Social Responsibility Theory of media entails the same concept into existence. Threats against journalists are rare, unlike those working under Soviet-Communist or Authoritarian media systems. The self-regulatory mechanism across media organizations needs to be strong enough to stop anomalies whenever they occur.