From time to time a current of thought sweeps through a culture and moves its most disparate elements in the same direction. While the questions here will help you, my writing hints also provide a kind of step-by-step methodology. Structuralism rejected the concept of human freedom and choice and focused instead on the way that human experience and thus, behaviour, is determined by various structures. Literary theory refers to any principles derived from internal analysis of literary texts or from knowledge external to the text that can be applied in multiple interpretive situations. In other words, what patterns exist within the text that make it a part of other works like it? New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.
That's the one that came after structuralism. If you add complexity, you get perhaps a story stating that people fall in love despite the disapproval of their parents, peers, previous partners or other influences. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. That is, you can link a text to the myth of Apollo or to some specific American myth i. In the late 1950s he published , a collection of essays outlining his program for structuralism.
Barbara Johnson in illustrated deconstruction in the context of race and gender. We read according to certain conventions; consequently our reading creates the meaning of that which we read. Judging a poem by Keats on the basis of linguistic theory would be nothing less than an extradition of poetry! Gurbhagat Singh, Ibid P 43. H — A Glossary of Literary Terms, Sixth Edition, 1993, p-280. In Britain, authors such as and were highly influenced by structuralism.
Literary theory offers varying approaches for understanding the role of historical context in interpretation as well as the relevance of linguistic and unconscious elements of the text. Structuralists are similar to New Critics in that New Critics also locate patterns, map structure, identify tensions, etc. Gender Studies and Queer Theory Gender theory came to the forefront of the theoretical scene first as feminist theory but has subsequently come to include the investigation of all gender and sexual categories and identities. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1956. There is what might be called the natural attitude to the artificial, where the text explicitly cites and exposes vraisemblance of the kind directly above, so as to reinforce its own authority. The current state of theory is such that there are many overlapping areas of influence, and older schools of theory, though no longer enjoying their previous eminence, continue to exert an influence on the whole. One gains an appreciation of literature as an institution, as a coherent and related set of codes and practices, and so one sees also that reading is situated reading, that is, it is in a certain meaning-domain or set of codes.
Dear Duntson, we can try an apply various theories to various literary texts. Jameson is a more diverse theorist, known both for his impact on Marxist theories of culture and for his position as one of the leading figures in theoretical postmodernism. The origins of structuralism connect with the work of on , along with the linguistics of the and schools. Its aim, says Robert Scholes, is nothing less than the unification of all the sciences into a new system of belief. We believe that despite the terminological ambiguity, the profound tendency of our texts was not attached to the 'structuralist' ideology. If Braveheart were my text, I would link it to other medieval romances like Rob Roy, First Knight, etc.
Lastly, literary theory in recent years has sought to explain the degree to which the text is more the product of a culture than an individual author and in turn how those texts help to create the culture. He also shares his poems; personal thoughts and book reviews. Scholes explores the linguistic background of structuralism, its historical connections to romanticism and Russian formalism, and the theory and practice of the leading contemporary structuralist literary critics. When it comes to literature, structuralist theorists care about discovering the structures or rules that govern groups of literary works. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel. Something's cooked because it's not raw. They have to be seen in context of larger structures.
This anti-foundationalism and scepticism about the traditional concepts of meaning, knowledge, truth and subjectivity also found radical expression in Marxism Althusser , Feminisms Butler, Cixous, Kristeva , New Historicism Greenblatt and Reader Response theory Iser, Bloom and others. In a nutshell, this is the structuralism in literature — no piece produced by an author brings anything new to the stock. In another way, structuralism is a complementary to formalism. More connections become possible as you learn more. The same goes for other types of literature. In keeping with the totalizing spirit of Marxism, literary theories arising from the Marxist paradigm have not only sought new ways of understanding the relationship between economic production and literature, but all cultural production as well. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences.
There is considerable similarity between structural literary theory and 's archetypal criticism, which is also indebted to the anthropological study of myths. Greimas, Barthes, Todorov and others investigated what the components and relations of narrative are. So, word meanings depend on their systematic arrangements. Part Two: Making Meaning Make sense of your charts by explaining the deep structure in prose form. However, to apply the Deconstruction theory, we just need to break the text down in loopholes, gaps, contradictions and possible ambiguities. When applied to literature, structuralism argues that every text has its own structure and that the text can be understood through perceiving the structure.