However, are related to self-image and social acceptance. A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes. Although some earlier studies, notably by Hinckley and MacCrone, had come to the conclusion that the attitudes and backgrounds of the judges do not affect the position of various statements on the scale, more recent researches notably by Hovland and Sherif 1952 and by Kelly and associates 1955 have come out with findings suggesting that the attitudes and backgrounds and even the intelligence of the judges do affect the scale-values they assign to the statements. Neither is a better answer, and the numbers merely organize the data into numerical categories. In the picture above , you can find Osgood's map of people's ratings for the word 'polite'.
In the above example of Interval scale, a score of 4 in one quality does not necessarily mean that the respondent is twice more satisfied than the respondent who marks 2 on the scale. For this purpose a large number of statements are collected that relate to the concept or construct being measured. It affords no guidance, however, for selecting statements that are likely to form a uni-dimensional scale. For example, here we are taking nine brands. For example, with reference to the following statements, its disapproval by a subject will indicate favourable attitude toward the issue. No other indication is there on the continuous scale. It is important that the responses are scored consistently in terms of the attitudinal direction they indicate.
A hotel customer is asked to indicate the level of satisfaction for the service provided. Using this information we can see if a persons feeling evaluation towards an object is consistent with their behavior. Attitude measurement is commonly referred to as. The person must look at the picture s and tell a story. A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes. Thus, we can select any number from +5,for words we think are very accurate, to -5,for words we think are very inaccurate.
Ratio scales are not commonly used in marketing research but are used to describe a physical scale. Please reference authorship of content used, including link s to ManagementStudyGuide. There are various problems that affect the of attitude scales. Indirect methods typically involve the use of a projective test. The following are the important single item scales: 1 Itemised Category Scales: Are those in which respondents have to select an answer from a limited number of ordered categories.
One group of people is asked to fill out the scale twice, once before some event, such as reading a persuasive argument, and again afterward. Their focus remain on bad people and avoids good People. Respondents who harbor a negative attitude towards a particular group may not wish be admit to the experimenter or to themselves that they have these feelings. Given this problem, various methods of measuring attitudes have been developed. The items with low discriminatory power or those that do not show a substantial correlation with the total score are eliminated to ensure that the questionnaire is internally consistent, that is, every item or statement is related to the same general attitude. The advantages of such indirect techniques of attitude measurement are that they are less likely to produce socially desirable responses, the person is unlikely to guess what is being measured and behavior should be natural and reliable. Therefore, when the consumers are choosing between brands, they base their decision on various attributes.
This score represents his position on the continuum of favourable-unfavourableness toward an issue. About the Author Stephen Andrew Baldwin became a freelance writer in Seattle, Wash. Example 3 - If there are 5 different brands of Talcom Powder and if a respondent ranks them based on say, Freshness into Rank 1 having maximum Freshness Rank 2 the second maximum Freshness, and so on, an Ordinal Scale results. A projective test is one in which a test taker responds to or provides ambiguous, abstract, or unstructured stimuli, often in the form of pictures or drawings. This is because it is a simple, manageable task that children can relate to and enjoy. This scale is administered to a large group of subjects and their responses are analysed to determine which of the items discriminate most clearly between the high scorers and the low scorers on the total scale. However, the most common problem is that of social desirability.
Consequently, responses on attitude scales are not always 100% valid. Ratio scales often measure things like money, miles, height and weight where the answers describe how far the respondent is from zero. The procedure for constructing a Likert-type scale is as follows: a The investigator assembles a larger number of statements considered relevant to the attitude being investigated, which are either clearly favourable or clearly unfavorable. Attitude is composed of three components, which include, Cognitive component Basically, the cognitive component is capable of being reduced to factual knowledge. There is little professional support for the use of figure drawing, so the examples that follow should be interpreted with caution.
Rati scale possess all he characteristics of an internal scale, and the ratios of the numbers on these scales have meaningful interpretations. Their approach is choked with pessimism and their behaviour is fraught with frustration. The control group is used to measure exposure or practice effects. It makes no sense to rank male and female because neither is greater than the other. The article is Written By Prachi Juneja and Reviewed By Management Study Guide Content Team. Journal of personality and social psychology, 46 3 , 598.