# Types of measurement scales in research. Chapter 3: Levels Of Measurement And Scaling 2019-01-09

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## Characteristics of Scales of Measurement in Research What measure of central tendency mean, median, mode can they report? The rules used to assign numerals objects define the kind of scale and level of measurement. Once each statement has a score, you're ready to use the scale. However, it should be noted that the Chi-square is a test to determine whether two or more variables are associated and the strength of that relationship. For example, what if we decide that the temperature of a person's breakfast matters? If eating breakfast did not vary, every single person would eat the exact same thing for breakfast every single morning. An example of the use of an ordinal scale would be a study that examines the smoking rates of teenagers.

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## Commonly Used Research Measurement Scales Reliability Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. Again, measurement involves assigning scores to individuals so that they represent some characteristic of the individuals. Semantic scales: This type of scale makes extensive use of words rather than numbers. In each there is a concept of zero income, zero weight, etc. An interval scale looks at variables where both the order and difference is meaningful, but the ratio of the units is not meaningful.

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## Quantitative Scales of Measurement Presumably, if a person is willing to accept a certain association, he is willing to accept all those that precede it on the list those with lesser intensities , though this is not necessarily the case as some critics of this scale point out. It is also the case that many established measures in psychology work quite well despite lacking face validity. Mode is the most common value in a dataset e. Using different scales in your survey will engage the respondent more fully and prevent them from clicking the highest, lowest or middle rating all the time. Explain what is meant by a semantic differential scale. It turns out that the first subject smokes one pack a day, the second smokes two packs a day, and the third smokes ten packs a day.

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## Social Research Methods Face validity and construct validity are similar in the fact that both types of validity… Learning how to socialize in big groups and thinking before acting can take you further in life. If one kid eats a breakfast that is 100° and another eats one that is 50°, the difference between those two breakfasts is 50°. Measurement scales: Nominal or classificatory scale The nominal or classificatory scale is the most simple scale that is used in statistics and research. Below labels have been given to the factors so that the worked example will be easier to understand. Suffice it to say that virtually all statistical operations can be performed on ratio scales. Magnitude Moving one step ahead, a variable could have Identification and Magnitude as well, meaning that numbers have an inherent order from smaller to large. A list of students in alphabetical order, a list of favorite cartoon characters, or the names on an organizational chart would all be classified as nominal data.

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## Types of Measurement Scales in Research and Statistics But interval and ratio scales take any value between two integers, as the variables are continuous. The ordinal scale has the properties of the nominal scale, but it is a little more advanced than nominal scale. But it is important to understand the different levels of measurement when using and interpreting scales. Understanding the mathematical properties and assigning proper scale to the variables is important because they determine which mathematical operations are allowed. For example, a person might be asked about someone of a different race or age. Interval scales It is only with an interval scaled data that researchers can justify the use of the arithmetic mean as the measure of average.

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## Scales of Measurement We take the list of statements to a bunch of people and have each of them mark whether they agree or disagree. So, how do you do your study? The very nature of mood, for example, is that it changes. A Type B person is relaxed and laid back, less driven and competitive, and slow to anger. In an experiment, note what colour of shoes each participant is wearing on a particular day. A clear indication of this fact is that you can easily multiply and divide monetary values. Let's look closer at each of the four scales and what types of variables fall into each category.

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## Four Statistical Scales of Measurement Can be used for determining the mode, the mean, the standard deviation, the t test, the F test, and the product moment correlation. A researcher wants to measure consumer preference between 9 brands of vegetable oil and has decided to use the paired comparison method. The values are arranged either in ascending or descending order, so there is an ordered relationship between the values in the scale. Ratio scales The highest level of measurement is a ratio scale. To measure appropriately the research variables identified and reflected in the conceptual framework, a budding researcher must be very familiar with the four statistical scales of measurement. At a first glance all the different scales that might seem similar and easily replaceable by each other. Not these are rank and the time distance between 1 and 2 may well not be the same as between 2 and 3, so the distance between points is not the same but there is an order present, when responses have an order but the distance between the response is not necessarily same, the items are regarded or put into the Ordinal Scale.

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## Research Design and Scales of Measurement These qualities, including magnitude, equal intervals, and absolute zero, determine what scale of measurement is being used and therefore what statistical procedures are best. Good examples of ratio variables include height and weight. The space between 0-degree centigrade to 100-degree centigrade is always equally spaced. The scores, which are percentages, are ratios. The scores for each of the statements would then be totaled for each respondent to create an overall score of prejudice. Think about it like this: if you can say, 'That's twice as much' about one number in relation to another one, then it can be measured on a ratio scale. The lowest data point collected serves as a meaningful absolute zero point which allows for interpretation of ratio comparisons.

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## Scales of Measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval & Ratio Validity Validity is the extent to which the scores from a measure represent the variable they are intended to. Each of the objections is paired by the researcher so that with 5 factors, as in this example, there are 10 pairs- In 'paired comparisons' every factor has to be paired with every other factor in turn. An ordinal scale of measurement looks at variables where the order matters but the differences do not matter. It is possible to test for order correlation with ranked data. Examples of such scales include; paired comparison, dollar metric, unity-sum-gain and line marking scales. Why would a marketing researcher employ a dollar metric scale? Weight and height are the best examples of variables that can be measured on the ratio scale, they have an absolute zero point and no value exists below that.

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## Scales of Measurement A ratio scale contains all three qualities and is often the scale that statisticians prefer because the data can be more easily analyzed. It is simply a sorting operation in which all individuals or units or answers can be placed in one category or another i. Validity is the extent to which the scores actually represent the variable they are intended to. They offer a simple rating system that is common to surveys of all kinds. Ratio Scale The scale that contains the richest information about an object is ratio scaling.

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